Our Cities

Local governments can have a comparative advantage if they choose to take Climate Action Initiative and the lead on applying climate change & energy policies, through the design, development, implementation and evaluation of concrete local climate actions.

In the Mediterranean region, Climate Action Initiative at local level is particularly needed as national policies do not respond to the hot-spot challenges and where actions should be originated and tailored to local circumstances and the need of resident constituencies.

South Mediterranean Mayors showed commitment to join the Covenant of Mayors, as 122 signatories have already joined through the previous CES-MED project and the current Clima-Med project. A short description of the CoM Med cities is provided (work in progress).

Our Cities

Algeria:

(Batna, Boumerdes, Sidi Bel Abbès)

Batna

(Region: Mouhafaza-District)

Batna

Population:Around 350.000 ha (31/12/2013)

Area: 85 km ²

Name of Mayor: Mr. Abdelkarim Marouk

Contact:Mr. Laribi Belkacem, General Secretary of Batna

Main features:

Batna's geographical location offers a natural break through the Atlas Mountains. The Romans did not detect this passage in their early invasion phase. For its historical character of capital of the Aures region that experienced the first outbreak of the revolution of 1954. It is a former colonial city.

Cultural activities: Berber population known for its customs and its language the “Chaoui “

Cultural activities: Dance and Folklore Chaoui.

Main economic activities:

The city has an industrial zone and a zone of activity of plastic processing, production of building materials, Aluminium and Wood processing and food products, namely milk and derivatives.

Arboriculture: Mainly orchards and olive groves. Breeding; chicken broiler.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Primarily Environmental challenges: sustainable transport, sustainable lighting through the use of renewable and alternative energy.

Economic challenges: reduction of the energy invoice consumption, saving gas and electricity. Reduction of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Heating and electricity are provided by Sonelgaz, the state monopoly on which the entire city depends. Using solar energy to generate electricity for the common structures through solar panels. Sustainable public lighting.


Boumerdes

(Region: Mouhafaza-district - Casa)

(Region: Kabylie - District: Boumerdes district)

Boumerdes

Population:41,685 (2008)

Area: 19,08 Km ²

Name of Mayor: -

Contact: -

Main features:

Boumerdes is a seaside city located in the north of Algeria about 50 km east of Algiers. Its previous name, during French occupation of Algeria, was Rocher Noir, translated from French as Black Rock. The city is famous as a scientific center, including a number of national institutes and the University of M'hamed Bouguerra. The institutes include the Algerian Petroleum Institute (IAP), the Faculty of Hydroncarbons and Chemistry (FHC), the National Institute for Electricity and Electronics INELEC.

Main economic activities:

The city is known as an industrial center containing the headquarters of Sonatrach Exploration, National Company of Geophysics (ENAGEO), and the Research and Development Center for Sonatrach (CRD).

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Sustainable Development Challenges: Reducing the use of fossil fuels, especially oil and the need to develop renewable energy.

The tourist vocation of the city brings energy constraints and specific urban management. For example, the peak attendance of school periods materializes by overuse of existing networks, a larger waste collection and traffic issues. The city is currently exploring with the local university the fabric implementation reflection on environmental urban development of the city and the development of the waterfront.

Similarly, actions towards the civil society are numerous in Boumerdes and subject to special monitoring of the municipal team.

For this reason the city is a good laboratory for the implementation of pilot projects in the field of public awareness and the voluntary sector


Sidi Bel Abbès

(Region: Mouhafaza-District)

Elad

Population:231,119

Area: 9700 Km ²

Sidi Bel Abbes is in an important crossroads between the following cities: 80 kilometres from the city of Oran, 60 km from the town of Ain Témouchente, 90 km from the city of Télemcen, 90Km from Masscara, 100 km from the town of Saida.

Name of Mayor: -

Contact: -

Main features:

Sidi Bel Abbès is an agro-pastoral and touristic region, about the eighth largest city in Algeria Economically important with two major electronic and mechanical production complexes: The SBA theatre, considered among the best in Algeria and a nature theatre of 1,200 seats. It has a large natural lake and is a transition site for migratory birds, a large botanical public garden with a mini animal zoo, a mountain range (Mount Tessala with two centers of summer camp) and a large attraction park/

Main economic activities:

-Mechanically complex (agricultural machinery, combine harvester and derivative)

-E-complex ENIE (making TV + electronic components, solar panel)

-Industrial-Zone with several SMEs, SMIs

-Farms for cattle farming

-Two large dairy complex

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Sustainable Development Challenges: To reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by planting trees and creating a green belt around the city Tramway Project (modern electric transport)

Currently, conventional energy with renewable energy solar project


Israel:

(Rosh Ha Ayin, Shefa’ Amr, Eilat, Peta Tikva, Ma’Alot-Tarshiha, Mi’Ilya Local Council, Netanya, Ramla, Yoqneam, Nof Hagalil, Eilot, Araba, Ashdod, Sakhnin, HofHaCarmel, Taibeh, Pardes Hanna Harkur, Der Hana, Kaukab Abu al-Hija, Eilabun, Bu’eine Nujeidat, Elad, Holon, Shoham, Givatayim, Ramat Gan, Kochav Yai-Tzur Yigal, Drom Hasharon, Hof Hasharon, Hod Hasharon, Raanana, Kfar Saba)

Ashdod

Ashdod

Population:225,939 (2019)

Area: 47.242 km ²

Ashdod is located in the Southern District of the country, on the Mediterranean coast where it is situated between Tel Aviv to the north 32 kilometers (20 miles) away, and Ashkelon to the south 20 km (12 mi) away. Jerusalem is 53 km (33 mi) to the east. The city is also an important regional industrial center.

Name of Mayor: Dr. Yechiel Lasry

Contact:Yamit Honikman Perez, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.ashdod.muni.il

Main features:

Ashdod today is home to the largest Moroccan Jewish community in Israel, the largest Karaite Jewish community in Israel, and the largest Georgian Jewish community in the world.

Modern Ashdod covers the territory of two ancient twin towns, one inland and one on the coast, which were for most of their history two separate entities, connected by close ties with each other.

Modern Ashdod was established in 1956 on the sand hills near the site of the ancient town, and incorporated as a city in 1968, with a land-area of approximately 60 km2.

Main economic activities:

Ashdod is one of the most important industrial centers in Israel. All industrial activities in the city are located in northern areas such as the port area, the northern industrial zone, and around the Lachish River. The port of Ashdod is the largest in Israel, handling about 60% of Israel's port cargo. It was mainly upgraded in recent years and will be able to provide berths for Panamax ships. Various shipping companies’ offices are also located in the port area which also is home to an Eshkol A power station and coal terminal.

The Northern industrial zone is located on Highway 41 and includes various industries including an oil refinery, which is one of only two in the country. The heavy industry zone located south of the Lachish River was once the main industrial center in Ashdod. Recently, however, leisure facilities have moved into the area. Ashdod is also home to Elta, a part of Israel Aircraft Industries where radar equipment, electronic warfare systems, and ELINT are developed.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The Ashdod-Nitzanim sand dune nature reserve is a 20-kilometer stretch of sand dunes on the southern outskirts of Ashdod.

Ashdod has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers, pleasant spring and fall, and cool, rainy winters. As a seaside town, the humidity tends to be high many times year-round, and rain occurs mainly from November to March.

The expansion of Modern Ashdod, being a planned city, followed a main development plan, which facilitated traffic and prevented air pollution in the residential areas, despite population growth.


Bnei Brak

Bnei Brak

Population:204,639 (2019)

Area: 7.088 km ²

Bnei Brak or Bene Beraq is a city located on the central Mediterranean coastal plain in Israel, just east of Tel Aviv. A center of Haredi Judaism. It is one of the poorest and most densely populated cities in Israel, and the tenth-most densely populated city in the world.

Name of Mayor: Avraham Rubinstein

Contact:Tamar Lerer, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.bnei-brak.muni.il

Main features:

Bnei Brak takes its name from the ancient Biblical city of Beneberak. It was founded as an agricultural village by eight Polish Hasidic families who had come to Palestine as part of the Fourth Aliyah. Yitzchok Gerstenkorn led them. It was founded about 4 kilometers from the site of Biblical Beneberak. Bnei Brak was originally a moshava (rural settelement), and the primary economic activity was the cultivation of citrus fruits.

Rabbi Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz (the Chazon Ish) settled from Belarus to Bnei Brak in its early days, attracting a large following. Leading rabbis who have lived in Bnei Brak include Rabbi Yaakov Landau, Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler and others.

Main economic activities:

One of the landmarks of Bnei Brak is the Coca-Cola bottling plant in Kahaneman St. It is owned by the Central Bottling Company (CBC), which has held the Israeli franchise for Coca-Cola products since 1968. It is among Coca-Cola's ten largest single-plant bottling facilities worldwide.

Two major factories which dominated the centre of Bnei Brak for many years were the Dubek cigarette factory and the Osem food factory. As the town grew, they found themselves in the middle of a residential area; both left the area. Osem's main factory is now located on Jabotinsky road in Petah Tikva, just next to Bnei Brak.

In 2011 construction started on a business district, which will include 15 office towers. Several of the towers of the Bnei Brak Business Center are already built as of 2020, and other buildings won't be completed until after 2021.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Being an ultra-orthodox municipality, Bnei Brak set up an alternative water supply, for use on Shabbat and Jewish holidays. This supply, which does not require intervention by Jews on days of rest, avoids the problems associated with Jews working on the day of rest at the national water company Mekorot. Most of the streets are closed on Shabbat and Jewish holidays.

Picture by deror_avi - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12219239


Elad

Elad

Population:48,763 inhabitants (2019)

Area: 2756 km ²

Elad is a city in the Center District of Israel. It was built in the 1990s for a Haredi and to a lesser extent Religious Zionist Jewish population.

Located about 25 kilometers (east of Tel Aviv on Route 444 between Rosh HaAyin and Shoham).

Name of Mayor:Israel Parush

Contact:(972) 03-9078112

Website: www.elad.muni.il

Main features:

It is a young city of 60% children, religiously diverse population, rapid growth rate, surrounded by forests and dense.

Elad is the only locality in Israel officially designated a religious municipality. The name Elad means “Forever God”, but it is also named after a member of the tribe of Ephraim, who lived in this area.

The town was built from scratch as a planned community according to urban planning paradigms not unlike Modi'in and nearby Shoham. While those towns were designed to suit a mixed population of secular and religious Jews, Elad was originally planned to suit a mixed population of Modern Orthodox/Religious Zionist Jews and ultra-Orthodox Haredi Jews, offering a solution to the acute shortage of affordable housing for Haredi families. Most of the population are Haredi Jews. Accordingly, Elad is built in a way that suits their religious lifestyle, with a larger selection of housing options offering larger than average apartments to accommodate religious families, who tend to have more children than the average national population. Another characteristic is easy access and short walking distances to local education institutions to avoid the need for school transportation costs.

Main economic activities:

Elad is a city without industrial zones.

The support center of Ramat Gan-based Israeli company Daronet is located in Elad. Its workers are ultra-Orthodox women. In 2012, Daronet signed a sales agreement worth NIS700,000 (US$180,000) with Saudi energy giant Yanar.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Elad municipality is surrounded by forests and therefore has the effects of construction waste consequences. Low socio-economic, a city without industrial areas and which revenues are from collecting property taxes, and a diverse population.

Picture by The original uploader was מיכאלי at Hebrew Wikipedia. - Transferred from he.wikipedia to Commons by Faigl.ladislav using CommonsHelper., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7475897


Holon

Holon

Population:203,000 inhabitants (2019)

Area: 19.04 km ²

Holon is a city on the central coastal strip of Israel, south of Tel Aviv. It is part of the metropolitan Gush Dan area. The city was founded on sand dunes six kilometers from Tel Aviv in 1935.

Name of Mayor:Mr. Moti Sasson

Contact:Mrs. Zoia Azgad, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. +972-3-5027309/3-5027442

Website: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

The name of the city comes from the Hebrew word‎ holon, meaning "(little) sand".

Holon hosts a variety of springtime events, including the Yemay Zemer (Days of Song) Festival during Passover and a Women's Festival in March, both at the Holon Theater. Holon is also one of the host cities for the Rhythmic Gymnastics Grand Prix Series in March.

Main economic activities:

Trade, High-Tech and industry.

Holon’s industrial zone is one of the biggest in Israel, located in the center’s metropolis. Some 40,000 people make themselves a living here in a wide variety of companies and businesses, ranging from electronics, recording studios and high-tech to plastics and wood products, bakeries, banks and shopping malls. The zone’s infrastructure is in a desperate need of redevelopment and expansion.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

New roads and a new bridge are needed in the municipality as well as a fast connection to the Ayalon Highway. New regulations must protect the environment and public areas have to be cleaned up. The ambition is to transform the industrial zone into a showcase of responsible entrepreneurship.


Nof Hagalil

Nof Hagalil

Population:41,734 (2019)

Area: 32.521 km ²

Nof HaGalil is a city in the Northern District of Israel Founded in 1957 as Nazareth Illit, it was planned as a Jewish town overlooking the Arab city of Nazareth and the Jezreel Valley.

Name of Mayor:Ronen Plot

Contact:Tamar Lerer, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

Founded in 1957 as Nazareth Illit, it was planned as a Jewish town overlooking the Arab city of Nazareth and the Jezreel Valley. Today, 29% of the city's population is Arab. Its name was changed in 2019 to "Nof HaGalil" following a plebiscite in which 80% of voters approved the change.

Main economic activities:

The Strauss-Elite chocolate factory in the city's industrial zone employs over 600 workers.

The city's population has been dwindling ever since, due to its failing as a commercial and industrial center. Thus, a large portion of the younger population has left, which altered the city's demographics.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Nof HaGalil municipality cares for maintaining the city's green grounds and for its forestry. Located by the city is the "Churchill Forest" (the money for which has been donated by the Jewish community of the United Kingdom in memory of Sir Winston Churchill). The forest, which lies on the downslope between Nazareth and Jezreel Valley, provides observation spots on the valley view.

In 2019, after a successful school fundraising, a scientific and ecological greenhouse was set up on a 500 m2 site in the Atzmon elementary school. The students of Atzmon will not only grow vegetables and fruits, but also invent new varieties and experiment with the scientific process involved in their development.


Or Yehuda

Or Yehuda

Population:37,000 (2019)

Area: 6,670 km ²

Or Yehuda is a city in the Tel Aviv District of Gush Dan. It is located on the site of the biblical town of Ono. The name was used by Canaanites and then by Israelites as well, all throughout the First and Second Temple periods. Jewish classical writings mention the city as being formerly enclosed by a wall.

Name of Mayor:Liat Shohat

Contact:Ksenia Afranco: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://www.oryehuda.muni.il/

Main features:

The modern town of Or Yehuda was officially established by the State of Israel in 1955, and in 1962 Or Yehuda was recognized as a municipal planning authority, which led to increased development. In 1988, Or Yehuda was declared a city, due to the increase in the number of residents.

The main sectors for which the municipality gives a special support are: Sustainable development, education, and infrastructure.

Main economic activities:

- Revenue from government and local taxes.

- Babylon Ltd., a developer of online translation programs that holds the Guinness World Record for the highest number of downloads of a language solution software, is based in Or Yehuda.

- The National Roads Company of Israel which headquarters are located in Or Yehuda.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

- Rainstorms that cause floods

- Increase in city population by 30% in the next 10 years

- Noise and air pollution from Ben Gurion airport


Petah Tikva

Petah Tikva

Population:247,956

Area: 35.868 km ²

Petah Tikva "Opening of Hope"), also known as Em HaMoshavot ("Mother of the Moshavot"), is a city in the Central District of Israel, 10.6 km east of Tel Aviv. It was founded in 1878, mainly by Orthodox Jews of the Old Yishuv, and became a permanent settlement in 1883.

Name of Mayor:Rami Greenberg

Contact:Ms. Eliana Sobol, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.petah-tikva.muni.il

Main features:

Petah Tikva (Opening of Hope), also known as Em HaMoshavot ("Mother of the Moshavot"), is a city in the Central District of Israel, 10.6 km east of Tel Aviv. It was founded in 1878, mainly by Orthodox Jews of the Old Yishuv, and became a permanent settlement in 1883.

Main economic activities:

Petah Tikva is the second largest industrial sector in Israel after the northern city of Haifa. The industry is divided into three zones—Kiryat Aryeh, Kiryat Matalon, and Segula, and includes textiles, metalwork, carpentry, plastics, processed foods, tires and other rubber products, and soap.

Numerous high-tech companies and start-ups have moved into the industrial zones of Petah Tikva, which now house the Israeli headquarters for the Oracle Corporation, IBM, Intel, Alcatel-Lucent, ECI Telecom, and GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals. The largest data center in Israel, operated by the company TripleC, is also located in Petah Tikva.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Petah Tikva is 50m above sea level. Petah Tikva is influenced by the local steppe climate. During the year, there is little rainfall in Petah Tikva. The average annual temperature is 20.5 °C | 69.0 °F in Petah Tikva. About 314 mm | 12.4 inch of precipitation falls annually.

Petah Tikva is considered as a pollution-sensitive area in the country.


Ramat–Gan

Ramat–Gan

Population:170,313 (2020)

Area: 16.4 Km ²

Ramat Gan is located in the Gush Dan metropolitan area east of Tel Aviv. It is bounded in the north by the Yarkon River and in the east by Bnei Brak.

Name of Mayor:Mr. Carmel Shama Hacohen

Contact:Omer Ben-Nun Stern: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.ramat-gan.muni.il

Main features:

The settlement of Ramat Gan was established in 1921. In 1950 it became a city. The city is in the middle of Tel Aviv district, the municipal district of Tel Aviv Jaffa, Holon, Bat yam, Bene Beraq, Herzliya, Ramat Hashron Kiryat ono and Or Yehuda.

Ramat Gan parks include The National Park which covers some 1,900 dunams, and David Park in the Merom Naveh neighborhood.[9] 25% of Ramat Gan is covered by public parkland.

Main economic activities:

Ramat Gan has the largest hospital in Israel – Shiba Hospital, which is one of the ten best hospitals in the world. It also has the Bar Ilan university, The Shenkar college of Design and Engineering. The Ben Zvi school for acting and more colleges. Ramat Gan has the Diamond Exchange District of Israel near Tel Aviv. There are many offices buildings, startup companies, Insurance companies, etc. This area is near the railway trains, The Ayalon river and The Ayalon highway. The northern neighborhoods are just aside the big Hayarkon river.

In the next two years the red line light train will start to work and will cross the city on its way to Petah Tikva city.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

In the building committee all the high buildings must pass the conditions of Green buildings since 2016. The municipality plans to:

- Reduce air pollution from vehicles especially in the town center.

- Avoid floods from the Yarkon river, green roofs, culture farm in the city, keeping the small naturel reserves.

- Reduce fossil energy by construction of solar panels.

Ramat-Gan has already made a progress in recycling garbage and intend to improve it. In the south of the city there is the National Park and the Safari zoo. It is a large recreation area in the Tel Aviv district.


Bat-Yam

Bat-Yam

Population:129,000

Area: 9 km ²

Name of Mayor:Tzvika Brot

Contact:Tali Kaplan Finish, Sustainability and Environment Department manager This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +97235556056

Website: www.bat-yam.muni.il

Main features:

Bat Yam is located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, south of Tel Aviv. It's part of the Gush Dan metropolitan area. The area of the city is about 8000 dunams and it is the third most density populated city in Israel.

The population is diverse. About 35% of its inhabitants immigrated in the 1990s from post-Soviet countries. Thus, Bat Yam is the city where the percentage of immigrants from the former Soviet Union is the largest among Israeli cities. Of the Israeli cities, Bat Yam is ranked 14th in terms of population and 55th in its territory.

According to CBS data, Bat Yam residents have the lowest income relative to the major cities in Israel. The city has a 3.2 km long beach and 8 declared beaches.

Main economic activities:

The main sources of revenue for the Bat Yam municipality are from commercial activities and small-scale manufacturing, the beach front as well as commerce and residential property taxes.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The environmental challenges facing the city are primarily associated with maintaining the cleanliness of the public areas and beaches, as well as increasing recycling and separating of waste, neither of which has not been sufficiently adopted by the population yet. Additional challenges include nuisances from businesses that are close to residences such as restaurants and workshops, and the disposal of building waste in open and public areas.


Yokneam

Yokneam

Population:23,796 (2019)

Area: 7.39 km ²

Yokneam is a city in northern Israel. It is located in a hilly region of the lower Galilee at the base of the Carmel Mountains, and overlooks the Jezreel Valley. It is 21 km from Haifa and 80 km from Tel Aviv.

Name of Mayor:Simon Alfasi

Contact:Dr. Anna Halasz: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.yoqneam.org.il

Main features:

Yokneam is known as Israel's "Startup Village" because its high-tech hub is surrounded by forest and small communities.

Yokneam Illit was founded in 1950 and became a local authority in 1967, and then a city in 2007. It is known for its religious tolerance, with many extended families consisting of a mixture of secular and religious Jews. Despite its small size, Yokneam Illit is an ethnically diverse city, with immigrants from all parts of the world and their descendants and many active synagogues, each with its own special character.

The policy of the municipality is to build low-density, spacious homes to preserve the landscape and views from every home. Although real estate prices are low relative to the Tel Aviv area, its high rate of growth in recent years has pushed prices up faster than in similar-sized cities.

Main economic activities:

Yokneam's proximity to two major universities (Technion and University of Haifa), location at the crossroads between northern Israel and the major urban areas of Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, tax benefits and investment grants associated with its status as a "National Priority Area A", and its small-town surroundings and lower cost of housing all worked together to attract Israel's highest concentration of R&D companies outside of Tel-Aviv and give it the nickname of Startup Village.

Yokneam's industrial parks are home to more than 100 high-tech companies with exports of approximately 5 billion US dollars annually. Companies specialize in a wide range of technologies, including semiconductors, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Yokneam is a very green city. Not just in terms of ecological activism, but also in terms of its physical surroundings. Roughly two-thirds of the land within Yokneam's city limits are green space (parks, archeological digs, gardens, playgrounds). It has five major public parks, and outdoor amphitheater and over 80 playgrounds distributed throughout the city.

In 2009 and 2014, the Cleantech Authority of the Environmental Protection Ministry (Israel) awarded the city of Yokneam Illit a prize for its overall strategy of protecting and nurturing green spaces and encouraging environmental awareness and education.

The municipality invests both time and money to maintain the natural beauty of its green spaces. Its building codes have become stricter and greener as the demand for housing has increased. A "green" neighborhood is currently under construction which includes environment friendly lighting, irrigation and waste management. At the same time, the municipality has actively worked to make the older neighborhoods more attractive.


Jordan:

(Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Karak, Sahab, Lewaa El Muwaqquar, Greater Madaba, Al Mafraq, Al Sarhan, Theiban, Jerash, Greater Naour, New Umm El Jimal, El Zarqa, Deir Alla, Al-Salt, Baalama, Russifah)

Al Muwaqqar

Population:89980 (2018)

Area: 750.8 km ²

Al Muwaqqar is located at 30 km south east of the Governorate of the capital Amman. It's bordered from the west by Sahab Juwaidah and Kraibatassouq, from the north by Al Zarqa, from the east by Al Azraq and from the south by the district of Jizah

Name of Mayor: Mr. Mefleh Salim Al-Khdeir

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://muwaqqar.gov.jo/

Main features:

The population in the city has tribal character where many Arab tribes have settled and formed it. It is located along Amman Development Street and Amman-Baghdad Street, which enables investors and tourists to reach it. It also lies near Queen Alia international airport.

Main economic activities:

The industrial and commercial sectors play an important role in the economy of the district where are more than 250 factories in Al Muwaqqar municipality and its district. Regarding agriculture and livestock, it lost all of its past importance and is now very weak or significant at an individual level. Finally, tourism has a great potential with many historical sites constituting the main assets of the sector that is in the process of amelioration and further development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city suffers from unemployment especially for the educated graduates and also the uneducated people bearing in mind that there are a lot of industrial institutions but there is scarcity in skillful employees. The unemployment rate has reached 16.1 % in the year of 2016. The city benefits from the essential services and infrastructures necessary for its citizens. Still the solid waste and waste water management is a big challenge for the city to reduce the pollution of the environment. Located on a plateau, 935 meters above sea level, the weather is arid to semi-arid due to the low precipitation and lack of rain in it. Dusty winds and storms affects the livelihoods in the already dry region. The region has noticed in recent periods the outbreak of fires in the barley fields due to the very high temperature that reached 40 degrees. The high temperatures and scarcity of rain have resulted in droughts which had a major impact on the already weak agricultural and water sector in the region. The water scarcity is a serious issue affecting and compromising the future of the city.


Al Russeifa

Population: 650000 (2019)

Area: 40 km ²

The city extends from the borders of the Amman municipality in the west to the borders of Zarka in the east and from the Autostrad Street in the south to the borders of Zarka municipality in the north.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Oussama Mahmoud Haymour

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.russifah.gov.jo/

Main features:

Al Russeifa is known for the abundance of phosphate mineral in it. Thus holding the Jordanian Phosphate Mines company since 1934. Its location on the Amman-Al Mafraq axe makes it a strategic city as it constitutes a checkpoint in the transit between the capital and the north thus having an important economical role and potential aside its various industries and natural resources.

Main economic activities:

The commercial sector in Al Russeifa is very active as the city contains large commercial areas, the city contains more than 1101 shops and commercial offices and 146 factories and companies. Many heavy industries are also based in there. Aside commercial and industrial activities, tourism is also a main pillar of the city’s economy where 282 restaurants and many sites are spread all over the area, representing an important asset for tourism and economy in the city.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Al Russeifa enjoys the presence of good standards in all essential services such as water, electricity, road networks and highways benefiting its residents and setting the ground floor to all economical and industrial activity. The city still faces major challenges, both in terms of solutions to the inner city mobility crisis and in terms of scientific solutions to the treatment of its solid waste.

At 700 meters above sea level, the weather is characterized by moderation in summer and winter temperatures with annual average rainfalls of 300 mm. However, climate change is affecting the city, traduced by the increase in temperature and shift in the rainy season, thus affecting groundwater levels as well as the agricultural sector.


Al Salt

Population: 143626 (2018)

Area: 119 Km2

Al salt is located within Al salt Brigade and is administratively affiliated to Balqa Governorate. It is located 25 kilometers west of Amman in a mountainous region, sitting at an average altitude of around 1000 m above sea level.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Khaled Hussein Al-Khashman

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.salt.gov.jo/Default.aspx?LNG=1&P=H

Main features:

It is an ancient agricultural city and administrative center in west-central Jordan. Its location on the old main highway leading from Amman to Jerusalem makes of it a strategic historical place as an important trading link between the eastern desert and the west, it was a significant place for the region's many rulers.

Main economic activities:

Al Salt is famous for its fertile soil and the quality of its fruit and vegetable harvests, particularly olives, tomatoes, grapes & peaches, giving it an agricultural character. The city has also an active tourism sector, with a large number of facilities and tourist sites that add to the city a tourist, heritage and religious character. Furthermore, the city is characterized by a large business activity and a variety of commercial establishments as well as a big number of factories mainly pharmaceutical and food production factories.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

In Al Salt and its districts the unemployment rate is of 19.3% higher than the Kingdom's unemployment rate of 18.5%. The locality however enjoys infrastructure and governmental services that sets the basis of a decent life. Nevertheless, the city still need a significant improvement for the existing infrastructure with regards to waste water treatment, roads maintenance and solid waste management.

The climate is mild and cold in winters and mild in summer with an average rainfall of 600 mm. However, the city has been facing the gradual increase in temperature during the past years in summers exceeding the average and causing forest fires. In addition to other changes such as decrease in snow precipitation, it left a serious impact on several sectors, including agriculture, public health and water.


Sama Al Sarhan

Population: 26000 (2019)

Area: 22.8 Km2

The district of Sama al Sarhan is located in the north-western part of the Governorate of AL Mafraq, and lies on the border strip of Syria for about 14 Km including seven different towns.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Khalaf Ayed Al-Sarhan

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: N/A

Main features:

This district enjoys an important strategic position as a border area with Syria with the presence of Jabber border Centre, Jordan's second crossing with it.

Main economic activities:

Al Sarhan region is renowned for agriculture and livestock as it represents the main pillars of its economy. Livestock raising is the main income for 15% of the population. Concerning the commercial sector, the area of the district flourishes in this side, where commercial activities are manifested through the spread of shops run by a part of the local citizens.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Most of the work force is working in civil government jobs, military entrepreneurship, trade, agriculture and livestock farming. However the district is facing a serious unemployment issue where the portion of the unemployed in the total active population accounts for 25%. Al Sarhan areas are among the poverty pockets with a poverty rate of 27% of the total population. The district is still facing major challenges both in terms of solutions to flash floods and in terms of proper infrastructure for waste water collection and treatment.

Located at 1026 metres above sea level, Al Sarhan is passing by several climatic changes that are impacting public health, water and agriculture mainly. Increase in temperature have caused rupture of several crops and trees, in addition to floods that damaged many agricultural lands. Moreover, the locality is facing water problems such as underground reservoirs depletion due to the scarcity and disturbance of rainy seasons.


Al Zarka

Population: 846120 (2018)

Area: 60 Km2

Al Zarka is located in the northeastern side of the capital, Amman, 33 km away from it. The city is characterized by its average geographical location between the cities of the Kingdom and on a network of roads linking it with other governorates and neighboring countries.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Emad Al-Moumni

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Website: https://www.zm.gov.jo/ar

Main features:

Al Zarka is an industrial city with a high population density. It is also home to diverse communities and challenges. When talking about its location, it is sitting in a point of the axe linking Amman to the north east and west of the country which makes of it an important checkpoint to all the economic and industrial activity all around the kingdom.

Main economic activities:

Al Zarka is very rich in field crops, vegetables and fruit trees as well as an important livestock sector where farm and sheep farms are abundant. Regarding the industrial sector, Zarka is the main industrial zone in Al Zarka Governorate where the major industrial facilities in the city count for 408. Additionally, the commercial sector in Al Zarka is an active sector with more than 11,000 commercial establishments.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Unemployment is one of the most important problems in Al Zarqa, and this problem has enlarged due to the rapid increase in population and successive migrations, the last of which is the influx of Syrian refugees, the unemployment rate in Al Zarqa Governorate is around 18.1%. However, the city is supplied with all essential infrastructure needs. The city still faces major challenges, both in terms of solutions to the inner city mobility crisis and in terms of scientific solutions to the treatment of solid waste.

Climate wise, Al-Zarqa has semi-arid climate characteristics, with hot and dry summers followed by cool winter and around 180mm annual precipitation in winter months. The city suffers from dry summers and low annual rainfall that had created water crises, having a direct impact on different sectors such as drinking water, agriculture, economy and health. In addition to that, in the late winter and early spring, the city suffers from floods that have a direct impact on Agricultural lands, Infrastructures and apartment buildings that pose a threat to the citizen’s life.


Balaama

Population: 65000 (2018)

Area: 240 Km2

Balaama district is located in the southwestern part of the province of Mafraq. It enjoys a strategic location due to its medium position between Al Mafraq and Al Zarka Governorates. Balaama follows the administrative direction of Al Mafraq Brigade and its new municipal land area is 240 Km². It is bordered by Al Zarka at the south and Al Mafraq at the north east. It is located at 700 m altitude above sea level.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Souleiman Audeh Al-Hleil Al-Khawaldeh

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Website: N/A

Main features:

Balaama has a historical value where its name is related to the prophet Balaam son of Beor where an inscription found in Tall Deir Alla in Jordan Valley. Its geographical characteristics makes of it a suitable environment for agriculture and livestock raising.

Main economic activities:

In Balaama, the economy is mainly relying on agriculture and livestock as well as other commercial institutions services and governmental institutions.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Most of the citizens’ work in the governmental institutions, educational institutions and most of the citizens have educational diplomas, however unemployment is important among the work force. The city still faces major challenges both in terms to waste water collection and treatment and in terms to solid waste management.

Among the most important impact of climate change on the region is the increase in temperature, fluctuation in rainwater or its entrapment and delay (larger quantities of rain fall in short periods of time, which causes great damage to the infrastructure) and thus causes an impediment to economic and social growth and the increase in demand for water in the future will be one of the most obstacles especially with the increase of population, the rise of the standard living, and the expansion of the urban area.


Deir Aalla

Population: 60010 (2018)

Area: 50 Km2

Deir Aalla is located in Al Balqa Governorate in the Al-Aghwar area west of the city of Al Salt, 30 Km away. It is bordered to the north by the Northern Jordan Valley / Irbid and Ajloun, to the east by the Kasbah of Salt and Jerash, to the south by the Southern Shouneh Brigade, and to the west by the Jordan River.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Mustafa Falah Al-Shatti

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Website: http://www.deirallacity.gov.jo/

Main features:

Sitting at an altitude of 250 meters below the sea level on the eastern side bordering the Jordan River makes of it one of the lowest inhabited regions in the world. It is famous for agriculture as al Ghor area and supplying the domestic and foreign market with all kinds of vegetables and fruits, which reflects on the national income through exports to neighboring countries. Due to its low altitude and its desertic climate, the weather is almost all the time hot and dry.

Main economic activities:

The economy sector in Deir Aalla relies on agriculture, industry and trade. Despite the economic diversification, such as trade activities, craftwork light industries, construction, and different services such as tourism, education, health and transportation, the agriculture sector is still the major component of the region's economy representing the primary economic activity in the city.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Most of the citizens in the city are working in the agricultural sector, however unemployment constitutes 12.5 % of the active work force. The city still faces a major challenge with regards to the implementation of waste collection network and a treatment plant as well, as currently people are relying on cesspits which cause a big risk of contamination for the underground water.

The weather is generally characterized by warm winters with an average temperature of 24 °C, and hot summers with an average temperature of 39 °C. Climate change and disturbance are hitting the locality, decreasing the rate of rainfall leading to a decrease in the underground water in the context of an increased demand for it. Droughts are more present and water reservoirs are depleting affecting agriculture and livestock as well as strategic water security for individuals. Also, the city is facing flash floods due to heavy rains in short period of time, causing damages to agricultural lands and infrastructures.


Madaba

Population: 161,900 (2018)

Area: 39.44 Km2

Madaba is located 33 Km south west of the capital Amman and close to the Dead Sea. It rises from the sea surface to about 740-840 meters.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Ahmad Slameh Al Fasatleh

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Website: http://madaba.gov.jo/index.php/ar/

Main features:

The rich historical and archeological heritage of Madaba makes of it a cultural city unique of its kind specially when talking about mosaique. Located in the church of Saint Georges, the Madaba mosaic map is the world’s oldest glimpse of the cartography of the Middle East during Biblical times.

Main economic activities:

Tourism is the main pillar of the economy in Maadaba because of the presence of many historical sites and destinations unique of its kind. Besides tourism, commercial activities also play a role in generating income for its population.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

In Madaba, the majority of the residents work in government and military, only a small number work in agriculture. The total unemployment rate is about 29.5%. The city needs to activate the commercial and industrial sectors to provide jobs and attract investment, especially in industry and tourism. Also, the city still faces a major challenge with regards to waste water collection and treatment improvement.

Concerning Climate, summers are hot and winters mild with an average rainfall of about 346 mm. However, extreme precipitation usually occurs at the beginning of winter that results by huge floods damaging infrastructure, buildings, and lives of people. These climate changes has revealed to have a high impact on public health, agriculture and water sectors by which they were the most affected.


Umm El Jimal

Population: 30028 (2018)

Area: 40 km ²

Umm El Jimal is an ancient village in the far north of the country at 86 km from the Jordanian capital Amman, it is close to the city of Mafraq and close to the Syrian-Jordanian border.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Hasan Fahed Radi Alrhaibeh

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Website: N/A

Main features:

Umm el Jimal is strategically located along the Trajan linking Amman to Basra or Damascus and Basra, and from Al Azraq through the Sarhan Valley to the Arabian Commercial Island. The city is characterized by the most impressive stone gates, known as the "Black Oasis", with its large numbers of black volcanic stone. This historic city dates back to the Nabatian, Roman, and Byzantine era and flourished in the first century BC. Historically, it was at a crossroads between Palestine and Jordan.

Main economic activities:

The agriculture sector in the village is one of the most important sectors for the local economy’s growth. This sector has provided plenty of job opportunities for the citizens of the region and the village in the past. The livestock sector is the second sector after agriculture contributing to the local economy. Regarding commercial activity, the active commercial establishments are composed of a complete range of supermarkets, pharmacies, bakeries, groceries, clothes shops and other small commercial shops. Moreover, with the presence of the historical byzantine ruins of an old city, representing a one of its kind historical heritage, the tourism sector is also a contributor in the overall economic activity of the village.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Due to the rural character of the village, the majority of the workforce is employed in the agricultural sector which has provided plenty of job opportunities for the citizens of the region and the village in the past. The municipality still faces major challenge with regards to the implementation of waste water collection network and treatment plant.

Climate wise, the summers are hot and dry and winters are cool with 150mm of average annual rainfall. However, Umm El Jimal is facing a dramatic increase in temperature as well as a decrease in its annual rainfall that is having a huge impact on groundwater levels affecting drinking water availability as well as for irrigation of agricultural lands and feeding of livestock, thus threatening the livelihood of the inhabitants and their sources of revenues.


Lebanon:

(Baakline, Kab Elias, Bechmezzine, Ardeh, Menjez, Hasbaya, Moukhtara, Khreibi, Batloun, Jezzine, Kherbet Rouha, Kawkaba, Kousba, Hammama, Jdeidet el Chouf, Federation of Higher Chouf (12 municipalities), Dekwaneh, Union of 20 Danieh municipalities, Union of 7 Eastern Baalbeck municipalities)

Batloun

Population: 4200 (2016)

Area: 5.55 Km2

The village of Batloun is located in the Chouf district. It is bordered by the town of Kfar Nabrakh on the west, Barouk on the east, Maasser El Chouf on the south, and Briih from the north.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Marwan Kaiss

Contact: mmkaiss@gmailcom

Website: N/A

Main features:

The village of Batloun is a strategic village in the beautiful Chouf district, which is part of the Chouf Biosphere Reserve and is blessed with several natural and human resources. In addition to its strategic geographic location the village has a beautiful nature, rich history, and high potential for eco-tourism.

Main economic activities:

Batloun, as many neighbouring villages has been historically famous for its agricultural produce, specifically for growing silkworms, and lately growing apples. The village has also a cultural heritage along with a beautiful nature that attract cultural and eco tourists making from it a stop for the tourists visiting Chouf area, which in turn lead to an active commercial sector relying on a big variety of commercial establishments.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Despite being close to the key water source in the neighbouring Barouk, the village has significant water shortages. Additionally, one of the major challenges the village is facing is the waste water infrastructure development to avoid underground water and surrounding environment pollution.

Batloun falls on the outskirts of the “Barouk Mountain”, and is surrounded by two valleys, it has a pleasant climate in spring and summer and a rather cold climate in winter. The village often faces landslides phenomenon in the valleys due to the heavy rain causing flash floods.


Bechmezzine

Population: 2500 (2015)

Area: 5 Km2

Bechmezzine rests in the middle of Koura plain at 70 Kilometers from the capital Beirut. The village borders the villages of Afsdik, Kfar-Hazir, Amyoun, Fih, and Bterram.

Name of Mayor: Dr. Fawzi Kalash

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Website: N/A

Main features:

The village is of geographical importance, as it is located at the intersection of several villages in the Koura area leading to several tourists and historical sites.

Main economic activities:

The economy sector in the village relies mainly on the agriculture, as well as on the employment in the private institutions including banks, private schools, and private contractors. The tourism sector also contributes to local economic development, which is dependent on the summer vacations of migrants and on the location of the village at the intersection of roads leading to well-known tourist sites such as Lebanon Cedars.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The majority of the village citizens are employed by the private and public sectors institutions in addition to the agricultural sector, leading to a very low unemployment rate.

The village is facing significant environmental pollution from the dumping of sewage in nearby valleys and from air high pollution due to toxic gases emitted by cement plants in Chekka area. Also, the village is subject to flash floods due to winter rain flows from surrounding hills and towns causing damages to houses, infrastructures and agricultural lands. Moreover, the village faces extreme cold in wintertime, where ice develops overnight during this period of time.


Dannieh Union (20 villages and towns)

Population: 150000 (Dannieh Region 2018) / 82000 residents (Dannieh Union 2018)

Area: 365 Km2 (Dannieh Region) / 102 Km2 (Dannieh Union of municipalities)

Dannieh is a region in north Lebanon, extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the highest mountains in the Middle East on a 365 km2 area. Dannieh cluster falls within the boundaries of the Minieh-Dannieh Caza in the district of north Lebanon. Minieh-Dannieh is surrounded by Akkar in the north, Hermel in the east, Becharreh and Zgharta in the south and Tripoli in the south west. The Western part of the Caza borders the Mediterranean Sea.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Mohammad Saadieh

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Website: http://www.dannieh.com/

Main features:

The Dannieh region is a land of great natural resources. It has the highest mountain peaks and the deepest valleys. The landscape stretches out from the shore of the Mediterranean and extends to the highest mountains. It has the largest forests in Lebanon including the rare junipers (Lezzab) forest and the cedar forest. It has the greatest reserve of aquifer and the largest number of springs in the country. It has the most beautiful climate and the most diverse biological environment.

The Dannieh region has the potential to entice eco and winter vacationers from all over the world. The population of the region are the kindest, most loving and most generous people. They have a great deal of integrity and patriotism.

Main economic activities:

The agriculture is still the major component of the region’s economy. It is the only source of income to 40% of residents and a partial source to 30% of residents, with a big diversity of cultivated crops.

Moreover, livestock grazing is still an important activity in the region. Dannieh is known for its pastures especially in the highlands which attract shepherd from outside the area.

Not to forget the importance of the tourism sector in Dannieh. The region is characterized by several tourism incentives including the beauty of the scenery, biodiversity, natural reserves, water resources and 62 archaeological sites. The most important touristic sites in Dannieh are: Zahlan Grotto, The Roman Temple in Sfireh, Lake Ouyoun Al Samak, and the natural reserve of Juniper and the Palace of Dreams in Bakhoun and others.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Despite the richness in natural resources, Dannieh region in general has the worst economic stagnation and the poorest agriculture sector. Also, it has the largest percentage of barren land devastated by drought.

It is apparent that Dannieh is facing enormous challenges regarding the sustainable development of economical and infrastructure sectors, such as the sewage collection and treatment, the solid waste management, the urban planning and the development of the agriculture and tourism sectors.

The major threats to Dannieh’s environment include: Loss of biodiversity, effect of littering and illegal garbage dumping on human health, dangerous effect of damping waste water into valleys.

Dannieh region is facing extreme cold in winter time especially in its mountainous area, and flash floods caused by heavy rains, which in turn cause damages to infrastructures and agricultural lands.


East Baalbek (Nabi chit, Sareine, Janta, Yahfoufa, Khouraybah, Al Khodor, and Maaraboun).

Population: 50000 (2019)

Area: 101 Km2

East Baalbek region is located at the top of the eastern chain of the Baalbek Hermel region, bordered on the east by Syria, on the south by Rayak An-Nasiriya and on the west by Danayel Housh al-Rafiqa. Eastern Baalbek region is divided into two parts: flat areas 45% and mountains 55%. The highest point above sea level is 1450 m in Khouraybah and the lowest point is 900 m in Sarein.

Name of Mayor: Ali Shokor

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Website: N/A

Main features:

East Baalbek has a picturesque natural location and is distinguished by its terrain and climate, conducting too many environmental activities due to the various natural features in it. This area is also known for its archaeological importance, embracing many sarcophagi, wells and the girl’s palace.

Main economic activities:

Economic activity in East Baalbek depends mainly on agriculture where 35 Sq.km of land are cultivated with a big variety of crops, religious tourism where historical religious monuments exist, and some light industry work where medium-sized factories comprising sponge and plastic plants exist. Trade activities are also a boost of the local economy where a part of the population is involved in trading within the villages and with nearby cities and towns.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Residents of towns and villages in villages and towns of East Baalbek face great challenges to secure a better standard for their lives.This is due to the weakness of the productive economic activities and the poor infrastructure sectors as well, comprising the sewage collection and treatment as well as the solid waste management. The unemployment rate in the region is increasing due to the lack of work opportunities compared to the growth in the population.

The region is exposed to extreme weather events, extreme cold in winter time, hot and dry weather in summer time, causing intermittent droughts and water scarcity since recent years.


Hasbaya

Population: 12000 (2016)

Area: 22 Km2

Hasbaya is the capital of Hasbaya region which is part of Mohafazat el Nabatiyyah, it is bordered by the village of Ain Jarf from the south, Ainqinia from the east, Mimes from the north and Qawqaba from the west. It is located at 108 Km from the capital Beirut and its altitude ranges from 550 to 800 m.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Labib Al-Hamra

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Website: https://www.edu-lb.net/hasbaya/

Main features:

Hasbaya is one of the most important and oldest villages of the Mount Hermon area. The oldest standing ruins date to the Crusader period. The village was in the past the capital of Wadi El Taim region and the seat of Chehabi Emirs who governed this region during the rule of Othman Empire.

Main economic activities:

The agricultural sector in Hasbaya is considered one of the most important sectors for the economic support of the families. The area of land under agricultural production is big, so the farmers adopt the planting of productive trees such as olive trees leading to a big quantities of olive oil production with a very high quality, fruit trees and the planting of the various vegetables.

The tourism sector in the village is a major contributor to the local economy as it is one of the most important and oldest towns of the Mount Hermon area. The oldest standing ruins date to the Crusader period.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

In the village of Hasbaya the majority of labor force are employed in the agricultural sector and the public sector. The village faces a major challenge for solid waste disposal as it is burned outdoors causing significant air and environmental pollution.

Regarding the climate, it is moderate in general, dry and cold in the winter and hot in summer. Hasbaya is facing intermittent droughts in low rain winters and extreme heat in hot dry summers.


Khreibeh

Population: 2160 (2015)

Area: 7.43 Km2

Khreibeh is located in the southern part of the Mount Lebanon Governorate and in the upper side of the Chouf Caza. It is located 56 km from Beirut and 7 km from the Caza Caimacamiyat seat in Beiteddine.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Nassim Al-Ashkar

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Website: N/A

Main features:

Sitting on the bottom of the Chouf high mountains and close to the cedar trees reserves of Barouk, Maaser Al Chouf, and Ain Zhalta-Bmohray, Khreibeh is part of the vital perimeter of the reserve thus being green, sustainable and attractive to tourism.

Main economic activities:

The village’s economy is diverse in the agricultural, service and tourism sector. Khreibeh is productive in agriculture, mainly known for its olive orchards and its olive oil production.

Also, the beautiful landscapes and natural environment of the village makes from the eco-tourism a good factor for the local economic development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The unemployment rate in the village is considered low, and the citizens enjoy a good infrastructure services, in need for better development and improvement especially for sewage collection and treatment.

The village is rich in water but has known some scarcity lately, this has led the local authorities to establish rain water collection artificial lakes all around the village and especially in the higher land where melted winter snow is collected.


Moukhtara

Population: 3900 (2017)

Area: 3.6 Km2

Moukhtara is located in Chouf District, an administrative division of Mount Lebanon Governorate and is on the upper side of the Chouf Caza. It is located 52 km from Beirut and 6 km from the Caza Caimacamiyat seat in Beiteddine, 850 m height and it is at a crossroads to Jezzine through Bater and the Bekaa through Maaser El Chouf. It is bordered by Ain w Zain from the north, by Ain Qeni from the south, by Maaser Al chouf from the east, and by Jdaideh from the west.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Roger Al-Ashi

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Website: N/A

Main features:

Moukhtara is one of the most important historical villages in Chouf area, has preserved traditional life style. Being a unique place with a strategic location and natural formation, it is considered by many a one of a type masterpiece of nature. Furthermore, Moukhtara is only 15 minutes from the largest natural reserve in Lebanon, Al Chouf Cedar Biosphere Reserve that covers 5 per cent of the entire country, stretching over 50.000 hectares and including 6 cedar forests.

Main economic activities:

The economy relies on two main economic sectors, agriculture and tourism. The agriculture sector is the biggest employer with 50% of the population that directly or indirectly depends on it. The village is characterized by olive trees planting.

Additionally, the tourism in the village is a factor of economic development and is based on scenic nature and historical monuments.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The village has good infrastructure in various sectors providing the residents with basic services to carry out various tasks, to move around easily and to ensure decent life for them.

The village enjoys a mild weather with warm days in the summer and cold days in the winter due to its location under the Chouf Mountains. It is rich in water but lately the village faced a water scarcity, this has led local authorities to think hard about increasing water storage capacity and establishing water harvesting projects.


Palestine:

(Hébron, Naplouse, Tulkarm, Abasan Al Kabira, Bethleem, Ramallah, Al Ram, Idna, Qalqilya, Yabad, Dura, Salfeet, Khan Younis, Bani Suhaila, East Bani Zaid, Jericho, Gaza, Rafah, Deir Al Balah)

Al Ram

Population: 60,000 (2017)

Area: 5.76 dunams

Al Ram city considered as the northern gate of Jerusalem, and it is 8 km away from its center. The city is bordered to the north by the Qalandia refugee camp and Kufor Aqab town, to the south by Jerusalem, to the east by Hizma and Jaba and to the west by Qalandia al-Balad and Bir Nabala.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Oussama Al-Sharabati

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Website: N/A

Main features:

The city has an important geographical location because it constitutes a regional center for 44 cities linking the north and the center of the West Bank, towns and villages in the governorate of Jerusalem, and has a significant number of governmental and development institutions.

Main economic activities:

Before 2007 Al-Ram was considered an economically and commercially active city due to its geographical location on the Ramallah-Jerusalem road. However, after the construction of the wall and the status of the military barrier, there was a decline and economic stagnation, despite the existence of a large number of commercial, industrial and service establishments.

Also, the city of Al ram was old in agriculture and was famous for olive cultivation, nuts and others, but currently is considered a low value agricultural land after the wall was built.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The separation barrier surround Al Ram from three sides and obstruct even more the access to schools, universities, teachers coming from East of Jerusalem that leaves a pending issue in the educational sector increasing the obstacles to a having a good economy, where the actual unemployment rate in the city has reached more than 15%. Moreover, the city is facing serious issues regarding the improvement of the inadequate sewage system and the rehabilitation of the poor road network.

In addition to that, Al Ram faces other environmental challenges, such as the gradual increase in temperature that resulted in excessive use of water in domestic use, irrigation that left the city suffers from droughts in summer time as well as water scarcity.


Bani Suhaila

Population: 41126 (2019)

Area: 12320 dunams

It is located 5.2 km west of Khan Yunis city center and is surrounded by the large area of Absan and Absan al-Jadida from the east and the town of Qarara from the north and from the south.

Name of Mayor: Eng.Hamdan Radwan

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Website: https://suh1.com/

Main features:

The city was built by the Bani Souhaila Arab tribe, and it is the gateway to the eastern region in Gaza strip.

Main economic activities:

The main economic activity and source of income to the citizens is agriculture as well as the commercial activities where small to medium commercial establishments are spread all over the city.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city of Bani Souhaila is located in southern Gaza Strip, by which citizens suffer in decline of most basic services, as shortage in electricity supply having it for 8 hours/day, in addition to the incomplete waste water network by which it covers only 30% of the populated area, and is considered a major threat for the community health and surrounding environment.

Climate wise, the decreased level of precipitation has increased the consumption of underground water for irrigation and household use which thus creates a future problem in water availability. In addition to that, Bani Souhaila is suffering from floods every year, as a result of the seven valley flooding that resulted in damaging houses and increasing the risk of landslides.


Bethlehem

Population: 31000 (2017)

Area: 10.61 Km2

Bethlehem is one of the major cities in Bethlehem region located in the north of the province, at 10 km to the south of the old city of Jerusalem, 73 Kilometres north of the Mediterranean sea and at 75 Kilometres west of Amman. It is situated on a mountainous site at 772 m above the sea level.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Anton Salman

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://www.bethlehem-city.org/

Main features:

The city of Bethlehem is one of the holiest cities in the world, since it is identified as the birthplace of Jesus Christ where you can visit the nativity church as well as many other symbolic and iconic religious sites.

Main economic activities:

The tourism plays a crucial role in developing the local economy. More than 20 % of the workforce are employed in the touristic sector. Around two million tourists and pilgrims visit the birthplace of Jesus every year. There are 14 churches and 7 Mosques in the city attracting tourists from all countries due to its religious historical importance.

The industrial activities producing eastern artefacts, stone quarries, concrete and textile, in addition to the commercial activities play a key role in the local economy development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The unemployment rate in the city has reached 27 % affecting the touristic, industrial, trade and agricultural sectors. The citizens benefit from all services and infrastructures. However, the water network is facing serious problems of leakages, streets are overcrowded and congested and waste water networks are incomplete and malfunctioning threatening the environment and public health.

Bethlehem covers a wide scope of farming yields that are influenced by climate change, the increase in temperature and the increment utilization of underground water has left a serious impact on water resources as well as the increase in contamination of underground reservoirs, thus affecting health.


Dura

Population: 39,128 (2017)

Area: 30 Km2

Dura is in the Hebron Governorate, 6 km to the west of Hebron city in southern part of the West Bank. It is bordered by Yatta Town and Hebron city to the east, Taffuh and Idhna Towns to the north, As Samu' and Adh Dhahiriya Towns to the south. It is located on a mountainous area west of Hebron city at an elevation of 839 m above sea level.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Ahmad Salhoub Al-Swaity

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://duracity.ps/web/

Main features:

Dura has a long history, the name Dura is derived from "Dour" which is Canaanite name means dwelling or high place. The old name of Dura was "Adurem” which has a biblical meaning of two places where farmers collect their harvest.

Main economic activities:

The commercial sector in the city is the largest sector in terms of the number of enterprises and employment. Also, the city has a rich history, with many archaeological, touristic and religious sites, as well as a picturesque landscape overlooking the surrounding areas, constituting a valuable role in the local economy development. As well, the city is famous with its agriculture sector comprising a large variety of crops and creating a lot of job opportunities for local community.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

In Dura, all the essential services are available however suffering from lack of maintenance and proper development, especially in the water network and the bad disposal of waste water is also affecting the environment as well as public health.

Recently, the city is starting to sense indications of climate change that had brought about temperature increment over the previous years and a diminishing in yearly precipitation thus resulting in water scarcity and disturbance of the climatic stability. These threats will leave Dura in confronting a genuine test in water accessibility as well as the management and the continuity of the most affected sector, agriculture.


Idhna

Population: 30000 (2019)

Area: 19.78 Km2

Idhna is a town in Hebron Governorate located 15 km southwest of Hebron City in the southern part of the West Bank. It is bordered by Tarqumiya to the north, Taffuh and Hebron to the east, Al Kum village to the south and the 1949 Armistice Line (the Green line) to the west. It is located on low altitude hills ranging from 400m to 480m above sea level.

Name of Mayor: Dr. Mahmoud Bachir Sleimieh

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://idnamuni.org/

Main features:

Idhna's site was inhabited since Canaanite times (the Bronze Age), evident from ancient remains found in the town. The town is identified with the biblical city of Dannah. It is located in the furthest west part of Palestine adjacent to the “Wall of separation” that cut several hundreds of Hectares of Idhna’s land.

Main economic activities:

Idhna’s primary source of income is agriculture, consisting mainly of cultivated areas with olive trees, along with livestock rearing and dairy production.

Also, the town represents the “capital” of scrap recycling, where this activity represents a major boost for the local society income. Besides, the city has an active commercial sector including a big number of establishments, playing a significant role in local economy development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The unemployment rate in the city has reached more than 25%, especially among graduates of universities and institutes, where about 31% of the population only are economically active. The city still faces a major challenge to safe sewage disposal, resulting in public health concerns increase as well as the environment and underground water pollution.

In line with that, Idhna has scolded through the previous year’s expansion in temperature that has caused harms on harvests, trees and shrubberies, on animals and on water sources. Notwithstanding that the extensive and abrupt precipitations has caused serious floods around causing streets blockages, flooding over agricultural lands, and damage to underground structure.


Khan Yunis

Population: 250000 (2019)

Area: 54 km2

The city is located in the south of the Gaza Strip in the south western part of Palestine near the Sinai Peninsula and has an average altitude of 45 meters.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Alaeddine El-Batta

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.khanyounis.mun.ps/

Main features:

The city dates back to the Mamluk era, where Barquq Castle was built in its center in 1387 AD. It was also a rest for merchants coming from the Levant to Egypt and vice versa serving the southern region. Currently, it is the largest city in the Gaza Strip Palestine by area, and the second largest city in terms of population.

Main economic activities:

The agricultural sector is considered one of the leading basic sectors in Khan Yunis. According to the latest available data the total production constituted 27.2% of the total agricultural sector production in the Gaza Strip, and thus it occupies the first place of value production. The city is also a commercial center attracting residents flocks from all over the Gaza Strip.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The people of Khan Yunis suffer from a significant lack of basic services to help them to develop their city’s standard of living. The city suffers from a significant lack of electricity supply, poor waste water systems and poor road infrastructure, which have a negative impact on the population’s ability to move and work, as well as on their health, which in turn has a negative impact on economic growth.

Therefore, the establishment and support of electrical supply, agricultural, industrial, tourism and animal production projects will create opportunities and reduce the unemployment rate that has reached more than 41%.

Khan Younis is confronting a current expansion in temperature over the ordinary normal temperature that left its effects on agriculture, where Khan Younis is described by having a fruitful soil. In addition to that extraordinary precipitation during winter season that has induced annual floods, leaving its effect of agricultural crops, underground water and roads.


Qalqilia

Population: 51969

Area: 10 Km2

Qalqilya is located to the extreme west of Qalqilia governorate. It is bordered to the east by the town of El Nabi Elias, to the north by the town of Falamia and to the south by the town of al-Khadra.

Name of Mayor: Dr. Hashem Almasri

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://qalqiliamun.ps/

Main features:

The city of Qalqilia dates back to the Roman era, and dates back to the Canaanite era. Some historians see it as a Canaanite term called round stones and then on areas and round borders. The city is strategically located and connect the West Bank with the Green Line and it is characterized by a beautiful nature and its historical center includes the old Mosque and houses dating back to the Ottoman period and the British Mandate period.

Main economic activities:

The industrial sector in the city includes different industrial types of establishment, is playing an important role in the economic and social wellbeing of the local society. In addition to an active agricultural and livestock sectors employing a significant part of the labor force in the city, as well as trade and tourism are active and play a key role in local economic development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city is benefiting from all essential infrastructures and networks such as water, electricity and roads. Nonetheless, water networks has a high pace of water misfortunes, which it is in urgent requirement for remodel. Moreover, this city is confronting a high level of unemployment coming to about 60% of the active work force, where the majority of the workers are in the governmental sector.

Climate wise, Qalqilya is confronting an increase in temperatures and shift in stormy season, happening in a brief period with extraordinary precipitation. In light of the absence of proper framework, this have prompted flush floods many times.


Ramallah

Population: 70,000

Area: 20 Km2

Ramallah is a Palestinian city in the Central West Bank located at 16 Km north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of 880 meters above sea level, adjacent to Al Bireh.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Musa Hadidi

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://www.ramallah.ps/

Main features:

Ramallah is generally considered the most affluent and cultural, as well as the most liberal of all Palestinian cities and is home to a number of popular Palestinian activists, poets, artists, and musicians. Moreover, the city is a political center with the main information centers of the ministries and the government and the head of the state where investors are more likely to be present. In addition, the location of city, being close to Jerusalem and located in the middle of the West Bank cities is very appealing for commercial activities.

Main economic activities:

Ramallah is a vibrant Palestinian business hub, especially as most international agencies and governmental offices are located in the city. In addition to the increase in the movement of building and the construction of commercial centers, offices and establishments that attract investments.

Also, the city of Ramallah is a semi-industrial city with different pharmaceutical factories and small factories, which play an important role in the employment of labour and providing job opportunities.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The immigration of Palestinians from other cities in the West Bank to Ramallah, where there is a highly competitive job market and many Palestinians, especially young men come to the city seeking work. Infrastructure in the city is in need for improvement and development to provide a solid foundation for economic productivity and human welfare. The city still faces major challenges, both in terms of solutions to the solid waste disposal and treatment and in terms of scientific solutions to the collection and treatment of waste water.

However, the city of Ramallah has begun to witness climate change in terms of frequent increase in summer temperatures, with fears of continuing to rise in the medium term. In addition, the persistence of high temperatures has put us in the problem of rapid evaporation of groundwater and consequently drought and water scarcity. These climate change have a huge impact on various sectors, including the agricultural sector and the water sector


Salfit

Population: 12000 (2017)

Area: 30 Km2

Salfit is located in the centre of the West Bank between the governorates of Nablus, Salfit and Qalqilya. It is bordered by Al Lubban ash Sharqiya (in Salfit Governorate) and Iskaka to its east, Bani Zeid ash Sharqiya„ Ammuriyya (in Salfit Governorate) to the south, Farkha and Bruqin villages to its west and Haris, Kifl Haris and Marda villages to its north.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Abdul Kareem Al Zubidi

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.salfeet.org/

Main features:

Salfit is an ancient city with many civilizations as it is considered a Kananiyah city of origin, inhabited later by Romans and Muslims and it finds many beguiling ruins in its lands. Salfit is famous for its olive oil as the governorate of Salfit produces the biggest share of it in Palestine.

Main economic activities:

The main economic activity in Salfit is the agriculture. Salfit is the most famous city in the production of olive oil where 90% of the cultivated orchards are olive, in addition to cultivated lands of vegetables and fruit trees. The livestock wealth in the city constitute one of the pillar for the economic growth as well. Additionally, the commercial sector accounts for a large proportion of its economic activity, especially in the field of communications, trade and transport.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Salfit is confronting many issues in various economic and infrastructure sectors such as the poor water exploitation and helpless control of the water supply particularly in the zones of development. Moreover, Salfit experiences numerous ecological issues in expulsion of the current solid waste, wastewater or olive-contemporary waste, which affect the health of the people and cause serious harms for the environment. Therefore, a number of services must be provided to Salfit residents, including the establishment and maintenance of road and drinking water networks, waste collection, and social development services as well.

In the previous years, the fast expansion in temperatures left a significant impact on agricultural lands and particularly olive trees. Notwithstanding that, shift and delay in rainy season left its effect on agricultural sector specially olives.


Yaabad

Population: 18000 (2018)

Area: 38 Km2

Yaabad is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, 20 kilometers west of Jenin in the Jenin Governorate, sitting at an altitude of 350 meters above sea level.

Name of Mayor: Mr. Amjad Mahmoud Atatri

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: N/A

Main features:

Yaabad is a major agricultural town with most of its land covered with olive groves and grain fields.

Main economic activities:

Agricultural wealth is a major source of income for the population and create jobs opportunities.

The people of the town are mainly dependent in their living on the agricultural sector, especially on the tobacco cultivation.

Moreover, the tourism sector is contributing to the local economic growth relying on the beautiful nature of the town attracting tourists for relaxation.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Most of the work force in Yaabad is distributed in the agricultural sector and specially tobacco cultivation as well as other commercial activities with a very low portion of unemployment constituting only 0.22% of the total active individuals. The main serious issues facing the life quality of the city citizens is the ineffective solid waste collection and the lack of wastewater collection networks and treatment plants as well.

Yaabad has faced the noticeable rise in temperature compared to previous years by which outdoor workers, the water sector, in addition to people with chronic diseases are affected. In addition to that the increased excessive rain has resulted in annual floods during the winter season damaging agricultural lands and properties, this has led local authorities to think hard to develop and establish rain water collection systems.


Morocco:

(Oujda, Benslimane, Agadir, Sale, Chefchaouen, Tiznit, Figuig, Belfaa, Drarga, Berkane, Kenitra, Al Hoceima, Sefrou, Marrakech, Al Hoceima)

Oujda

Population:494,252 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 82,820 km²

The municipality of Oujda is located in the North-Eastern part of Morocco, 60 km south of the Mediterranean and 13 km west of the Algerian border. It spans over an area of nearly 9,000 ha, in the vicinity of the mountainous region of Beni Snassen.

President: Mr. Omar Hejira

Contact: Mr. Adnane El Ghazi—Planning and Sustainable Development Department (SPEDD): This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.communeoujda.ma/

Main features:

The city of Oujda was founded in 994 by Ziri Ben Attia, chief of the Maghrawa tribe. Its geographical position in the North-Easternmost part of Morocco grants is an important position. As a main destination and border town close to the Algerian territory, about 13 km away, the city of Oujda has become a crossroads between the Arab Maghreb countries and Africa. Its proximity to the Mediterranean Basin, just 60 km away, has allowed it to be a passageway to European countries, but throughout history, the city has been characterized mainly by its border position.

Main economic activities:

The industrial sector in Oujda consists of 3 industrial units: The COLAIMO dairy cooperative; grain mills; olive crushing units.

Oujda also features a technopole (a high-technology cluster) including:

—An SME/SMI zone, serving the regional industries;

—A “Retail Park,” a commercial platform with a regional focus;

—A tertiary hub focused on offshoring and services;

—A center of excellence (Camus du Savoir) in the fields of knowledge and Research and Development (R&D);

—A Free Trade Zone, Cleantech, for RE/EE equipment and green industries.

Oujda’s commercial area is dominated by a “traditional style” which is characterized by the commercial alleys of the old medina, local small shops and weekly markets. This makes up 75% of the commercial area through 99 points of sale.

However, this sector is going to experience deep changes that have been characterized by the appearance of new business models such as commercial agencies and mass distribution spaces that occupy 25% of the commercial surface.

The city of Oujda has tremendous potential for cultural, religious, spa and mountain tourism. Several tourist sites characterize the city, namely the old medina, Bab Al Gharbi (West Gate), Bab Sidi Abdelwahab, the great mosque, Dar Sabti, Sidi Ziane Square, Lalla Meryem Museum, Lalla Aicha Park, Sidi Yahya mausoleum, Benkachour Spa, Sidi Maafa Forest and La Collange Forest recreational parks. As for the commercial activity in Oujda, it is mainly based on the sale of handicrafts such as pottery, wrought iron, mats, spices, orange blossoms, etc.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Located in a territory marked by a strong rural exodus and characterized by “weak” social indicators (the unemployment rate stands at about 20%, high proportion of the informal economy, etc.), the first urban center of the Oriental region is experiencing strong demographic pressure accompanied by a significant and unrestricted horizontal urban development. The significant consumption of space and its consequence: the growing need for infrastructure and energy, are the main challenges facing the institutions responsible for territorial planning.

From a climatic point of view, although the city of Oujda is endowed with two water tables (Angad, superficial, and Jbel Hamra, deep), the inhabitants of the region are exposed to episodes of drought coupled with a phenomenon of desertification. The main risk of natural disaster to which Oujda is subject is flooding, which is why projects aiming to strengthen the rainwater management network (over several kilometers) have been integrated into its Communal Development Plan (PCD in French), thus reinforcing the Blue Green (Bleu-Vert) Master Plan of the Moulouya Hydraulic Basin Agency (ABHM).


Benslimane

Population:57,101 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 7,086 ha

The Municipality of Benslimane is located halfway between Rabat (62 km) and Casablanca (55 km), in the extension of booming centers (Tit Mellil, Ain Harrouda, Mohammedia in the south; Skhirat, Temara and Bouznika in the west).

President: Mr. Mohammed Jdira

Contact: Mr. Ayoub Ziadi, Engineer: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

The commune covers an area of 7,086 ha near a cork oak forest of nearly 62,000 ha, hence its nickname, “Green City.” The slow growth rate of its population is a favorable condition for controlled and environmentally friendly urban development. Benslimane is a medium-sized city on the scale of Morocco (a little over 57,000 inhabitants in 2014 according to the HCP), Benslimane has only recently experienced urbanization and maintains a low population density. It enjoys its proximity to Casablanca and Rabat, attracting urbanites in search of peace and quiet. The city also has important tourist attractions, due to the preserved natural setting that surrounds it and numerous leisure facilities (185-hectare El Manzeh Golf Course, rock-climbing sites, hiking trails, waterfalls, etc.). It enjoys a continental climate, with temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 °C.

Main economic activities:

The economy is mainly oriented towards agriculture (cereal growing, livestock breeding), exploitation of forest resources and the tertiary sector, which has developed considerably since the 2000s.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Despite these multiple assets, the city suffers from its heavy dependence on the agricultural and administrative sectors, the lack of robustness of local public finances and the poor quality of certain public services (education, health, culture). While efforts have been made in recent years, the Benslimane region is struggling to attract more remunerative economic activities. As a result, the unemployment rate remains higher than the national average, as does the illiteracy rate. Lastly, the city has been exposed to a degradation of its natural environment, due in particular to the over-exploitation of its ecological and forest heritage.

The challenge for Benslimane is to articulate the upgrading of urban services and infrastructures, the development of the area’s tourist attractiveness by preserving and enhancing its natural heritage, and the consolidation of the public authorities’ action in favor of sustainable development.


Chefchaouen

Population:42,786 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 907 km²

The city of Chefchaouen is located in north-western Morocco about 50 km in a straight line from the Mediterranean Sea and 120 km from Tangier, the third-largest city in Morocco.

President: Mr. Mohammed Sefiani

Contact: Mr. El Hadj Riadh—Member of the City Council: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.chefchaouen.ma

Main features:

Chefchaouen, capital of the eponymous Province in the Tangier Tetouan-Al Hoceima Region (TTAH), is a highly committed municipality in the heart of the Rif territory in northern Morocco. Undeniably boasting countless heritage and natural assets, the city also known as the “Blue Pearl” of Morocco is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country with an average of 120,000 tourists per year.

Main economic activities:

In the field of tourism, the province shows major and diverse potentialities made up of historical monuments, many sandy beaches and vast forests with a very varied fauna and flora.

The handicraft sector includes, among others, weavers in the medina, blacksmiths, carpenters and cabinetmakers.

Agriculture remains an important sector in the commune with 183 hectares under cultivation, 74 hectares of which are irrigated. The breeding of goats of local breed is aimed at producing meat and milk for the cheese factory of national repute.

There is also a wool-spinning factory in the town.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

For the last several years, Chefchaouen has decided to boost its dynamic civil society and sustainable development, by developing ecotourism, enhancing biological diversity and territorial heritage, spatial planning and by actively involving the citizens in city policies.

In April 2010, with the approval of the Municipal Council, Chefchaouen was self-proclaimed, “Green City.” A founding member and president of the Moroccan Association for Eco-Cities (AMEV), the city is affiliated to several Moroccan and Mediterranean city networks committed to energy management, waste management and sustainable mobility.

In April 2016, the Municipality of Chefchaouen joined the Covenant of Mayors and committed to develop its Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). In the same year, and on the occasion of the 8th session of the National Environment Council (CNE), the municipality won the Hassan II Prize for the Environment 2015 in the Local Authorities Initiatives category.


Tangier

Population:943,817 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 128 km²

Tangier is a city in northern Morocco, the second economic heart of Morocco, and capital of the Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceïma region. It is the capital of the Tangier-Assilah prefecture. It is located at the northwestern tip of the country on the Strait of Gibraltar.

President: Mr. Mohammed Bachir Abdellaoui

Contact: Ms. Najoua Aknine, Engineer in charge of the environment: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.tanger.ma

Main features:

Tangier is located in the eponymous bay, open to the western end of the Strait of Gibraltar, about 15 km from the Spanish coast and on the outskirts of the Rif mountain range. The city’s port is the main destination for passenger ships coming from Europe. Tangier is one of the most important places of passage for travelers traveling between the European and African continents.

Main economic activities:

As the second Moroccan economic pole after Casablanca, the industrial activity of Tangier is diversified: textiles, chemicals, mechanical, metallurgical and naval industries. The city currently features four industrial zones, two of which hold free trade zone status (the Tangier Free Zone and the Port Free Zone). The infrastructure of the “city of the Strait” is extensive: a port able to manage and process the flow of goods and passengers (more than one million passengers per year), also integrating a marina and a fishing port.

As a major seaside resort, Tangier has various hotel and tourist infrastructures, a vast beach spanning over 7 km, and a medina (ancient city) where a craft trade has been blooming for centuries (leather goods, wooden and silver articles, traditional clothing and shoes, etc.).

The city is also becoming a hub of commercial maritime traffic with the opening of the Tangier Mediterranean port (Tangier Med), which aims to facilitate maritime trade. Since May 2010, most of the traffic is directed towards the new port of Tangier Med located about forty kilometers east of the city. It also features the port of Tangier Ville, dedicated for tourism and located at the foot of the Kasbah.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

With a 41% increase in population between 2004 and 2014, the municipality has welcomed since 2004 a large number of immigrants from all Moroccan cities to work in the largest projects that the city has experienced.

With its Mediterranean climate, the city of Tangier has fairly strong winds with an average speed of 20 to 30 km/hour with sometimes torrential rainfall.

In this way, the municipality is committed to becoming a sustainable, intelligent, livable city with a healthy environment, featuring soft mobility solutions and an attractive infrastructure for all age groups with various recreational and investment areas.


Tiznit

Population:74,699 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 80 km²

Tiznit is located in the Souss region, 15 km in a straight line from the Atlantic Ocean, 81 km south of Agadir, 203 km south of Essaouira, 271 km southwest of Marrakesh and 553 km south of Rabat.

President: Mr. Ibrahim Boughden

Contact: Mr. Khalid Erguigue: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.tiznit.ma

Main features:

Set between argan trees, olive trees and palm trees, the region of Tiznit is at the crossroads of sea and desert. Tiznit is a privileged place in the beautiful region of Souss, synonym with serenity and happiness of living.

The city is located 16 km from Aglou beach on the Atlantic Ocean, and several beaches are easily accessible.

The Souss-Massa National Park is located just north of the city.

Main economic activities:

The commercial sector is crucial in Tiznit, it is supplemented by the service sector which is experiencing continuous growth. The main popular outlet is the weekly Tiznit market (or “Souk”) which is held every Wednesday and Thursday.

In the town of Tiznit there are more than 2,500 traders (2,478 in retail trade and 25 in wholesale trade), most of them are located in well-equipped facilities.

The industrial sector remains nascent in Tiznit, though it does feature a developed industrial district and an industrial zone under development.

Agriculture in Tiznit is a subsistence agriculture with very little irrigation, which is highly dependent on climatic conditions. Its low yield is also linked to the fragmentation of cultivated land and the lack of mechanization. These fields are located mainly in the Targua and Doutargua perimeters. Livestock farming is the complementary activity to this food-producing agriculture and is sometimes the main source of income for the population. We note the existence of some cooperatives among which is the women’s cooperative “Tifaoute Ntalâinte” formed by 12 members and whose main activity is goat breeding. The latter will soon benefit from the Morocco Green Plan (Plan Maroc Vert). In addition, it is important to point out that mint is one of the best-known local products of this locality.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

As part of the Clima-Med project, the Municipality of Tiznit has committed project to prepare a Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan (SEACAP) to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation components. Among its main challenges is the preservation of the environment and traditional spaces: the rehabilitation of Targa, the reuse of purified water, the management of water resources, the use of renewable energy (solar), the protection of the city of Tiznit against flooding, and the creation of green spaces and their maintenance.


Drarga

Population:70,793 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 216 km²

Geographically, the town is located south-east of the city of Agadir on the National Road (R.N.8) linking the cities of Agadir and Marrakesh

President: Mrs Aicha Idbouch

Contact: Mr. Boutaib Noureddine: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.drarga.ma

Main features:

The commune features vast forests of 11,148 hectares. It is a natural and urban extension of the city of Agadir near the Marrakesh-Agadir highway and the seaport of Agadir. There is an extensive road network and a network of major associations.

There is a strong willingness of the population to contribute to the development process.

Main economic activities:

The main economic activities of the Municipality of Drarga are of 3 types: agricultural, industrial and commercial. Agriculture is the dominant activity in the whole Souss-Massa-Drâa region as well as in the Municipality of Drarga. In this territory, there are two main types of agriculture: so-called traditional agriculture, which affects the majority of farmers because of their average standard of living and the use of less expensive farming techniques. The second type of agriculture, known as “modern” agriculture, is intended for commercialization (Rural Municipality of Drarga, 2009). As for industry, the sector is developing in the commune. At present, only the processing industry of the outputs of quarries and sandpits is present. Trade is an activity linked to the needs of citizens. There are therefore retail outlets for consumer products, such as grocery stores, butcher stores and other food products. There are also shops selling clothing, building materials, etc.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Since 2018, the city of Drarga has been committed to the initiative of the Covenant of Mayors. The municipality is currently preparing its Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan (SEACAP) with the assistance of the Clima-Med project.


Berkane

Population:109,237 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 97 km²

The city of Berkane is located in the eastern region of Morocco, between the two other major cities of the Oriental: Nador located 80 km away and Oujda, 60 km away.

President: Mohamed Ibrahimi

Contact: Mr. Jamal Oujidi: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

Berkane is located in the vicinity of Tafoughalt where human presence has been revealed to have happened 40,000 to 100,000 years ago. The region extends from the Algerian border (Oued Kiss) to the Moulouya River in the west (border with the Ayt Stoute tribe), it dominates a vast expanse of plains: Triffa to the north and Angad to the south. In the past, forests were very dense in this region.The abundance of water in these mountains has favored the past settlement of the population in the villages. Berkane’s economy is based mainly on agriculture and the city is designated as the citrus capital of eastern Morocco. Berkane’s clementines and oranges are known and appreciated all over the world.

Main economic activities:

Berkane’s economy is based primarily on monetary transfers from Moroccans living abroad and on agriculture (the city is designated as the citrus capital of eastern Morocco).

In addition, the province of Berkane is the breadbasket of the Moroccan East. Many Moroccan semolina mills produce the famous couscous from the region’s wheat. It supplies the Oriental Region and the rest of Morocco with legumes and fruits.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

In order to preserve its water resources, the municipality wishes to protect its water tables by opting for the irrigation of green spaces with treated wastewater. The municipality will implement a series of actions to recover water from swimming pools and hammams in order to treat it and use it for irrigation.

The city of Berkane has been involved since 2018 with the Covenant of Mayors movement. The commune is currently preparing its Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan (SEACAP) with the assistance of the Clima-Med project.


Kenitra

Population:483,000 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 103.55 km²

President: Mr. Aziz Rabbah

Contact: Mr. Khalid Ikrou: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: www.kenitra.ma

Main features:

Kenitra is a city in north-eastern Morocco, formerly called Port-Lyautey under the French protectorate, located about 40 kilometers north of Rabat, the administrative capital. The city is the fourth industrial city of the Kingdom. It is one of the major Moroccan cities linking the northern cities to the capital. It is located on the south bank of the Oued Sebou, 12 km from the mouth on the Atlantic Ocean towards Mehdia.

With the biggest national forest (Maâmora Forest), the city features a geostrategic position and boasts significant natural, ecological and socio-economic potential. Such assets grant it an advantageous situation that naturally guide Kenitra towards sustainable and ecological development in long-term environmental perspective, which holds a strong potential of reproduction for other Communes.

Main economic activities:

Economic capital of the historic Gharb region in the northwest of the country, Kenitra is considered today as one of the main Moroccan cities. It is famous among other things for its export of agricultural products, and is often cited as the agricultural capital of Morocco.

The port of Kenitra on the Sebou River is the first and only Moroccan river port. Kénitra will also host Atlantic Free Zone, the largest export Free Zone on the African continent (345 ha), for commercial trading activities in the Maghreb. Like the entire Moroccan northern coast, the city has benefited for five years from the Azur Plan and the various developments in force to improve and organize tourist areas, enhance the cultural and natural heritage of the northern region, and lastly raise awareness of the population and visitors to sustainable development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Through several projects and studies, the Municipality of Kenitra aims to improve and develop the site of Merjat Fouarat to achieve several specific objectives.

For the communal action plan (PAC); the municipality has programmed several environmental projects, such as the construction of a landfill and waste recovery facility.


Al Hoceima

Population:56,716 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 3,550 km²

The city of Al Hoceima is located in the north of Morocco, on the Mediterranean coast, bounded to the north and east by the sea, to the south by the Municipality of Ajdir and Ait Youssef Ouli (part of the Beni Ouryaghel tribe), and to the west by the Municipality of Izamouren (which belongs to the Bekioua tribe).

President: Mohamed Boudra

Contact: Mr. Abdennaser Esalhi: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

The Al Hoceima sea also features many islands, such as the tiny islands of Sabadilla and Cala Iris and countless small rocky islets. The island Peñón de Alhucemas (Sfiha beach) has the peculiarity of being under Spanish sovereignty as well as the peninsula of Badés (Penon de Vélez de la Gomera, Badés beach).

Main economic activities:

The maritime sector is considered predominant, since it feeds most of the city’s inhabitants and offers employment opportunities in the export of fish and also serves as a raw material for the food industry.

Commercial activity is considered to be one of the most widespread activities in the city, whether in its traditional form (souks) or modern (chained distribution network). This evolution is linked to the nature of the local economy and the considerable income of immigrants.

The importance of this sector lies in the growing number of commercial establishments and the large number of people working there.

The city of Al Hoceima benefits from advantageous tourist potentialities, given its geographical location and the splendor of its beaches; this has given this sector an exceptional potential status, granted by the state since the 1960s in order to exploit these potentialities and develop it while offering investment opportunities to private operators in this field. The evolution of the tourism industry in the city and the improvement of its services have contributed to local development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The environmental issue is considered to be the biggest challenge. The town council is working to ensure a safe environment by improving the collection of household waste and waste resulting from various commercial or handcraft activities. In addition, it is working to accelerate the transfer of weekly markets outside the urban perimeter and to open shopping centers to reduce the phenomenon of street vendors, to create industrial zones for manufacturers and craftsmen, and to create green spaces while preserving existing spaces to achieve environmental balance.


Sefrou

Population:494,252 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 10.80 km²

President: Mr. Jamal El Filali

Contact: Ms. Najia Rzama: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

Séfrou is located 28 km from Fez and 73 km from Boulemane, at the foot of the Middle Atlas. It is crossed by a river, the Oued Agay, (or “Assif N’Aggay” in Amazigh), river of the tribe that corresponds to that of the Ihinagènes belonging to the Aït Youssi (indigenous population and owner of the area of Oued Agay and Séfrou before the arrival of Jews and Arabs in the 1st and 6th centuries). There is a waterfall within the city, one of the many springs and waterfalls in the province.

The city is known for its cherries, also known by the Cherry Festival, created in 1920 and protected since 2012 by UNESCO on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Main economic activities:

The Municipality of Sefrou features a usable agricultural area of 97,200 hectares, including 15,000 hectares of irrigated land.

Two industrial zones covering an area of 12 ha are present on the territory of the municipality; the growth percentage of the industrial sector is still low. Making about 14% of the total activities, it is characterized by the predominance of olive oil presses, textiles, leather and building materials factories.

Sefrou has an important cultural and tourist heritage that includes, in addition to the waterfall, various other natural and environmental sites that forms an important investment base that can support economic and social development, thus creating employment opportunities. The tourist components of the city of Sefrou (historical, cultural, human and natural aspects) suffer from an acute shortage of tourist infrastructure, as the number of non-classified hotels is next to zero, in addition to a single municipal campsite.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Endowed with a continental climate characterized by a cold winter with often irregular rainfall and a hot, dry summer, the commune plans to implement a series of actions to fight against flooding of the Oued Agay which runs through the city and to grade, protect and landscape the banks of the river.

Since 2018, Sefrou has been committed and has adhered to the Convenant of Mayors for Mediterranean (CoM Med). The commune is currently preparing its Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan (SEACAP) with the assistance of the Clima-Med project.


Tunisia:

(Nabeul, El-Guettar, Hammam Sousse, Kef, Chihia, Monastir, Radès, Testour, Medenine, Hammam-Lif, La Marsa, Sfax, Kairouan, El Maâmoura, Sisseb Dhriâat)

Nabeul

Population:70,437 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 2,822 km²

Capital of the eponymous governorate, Nabeul is located in the south of the Cape Bon Peninsula. Located 65 kilometers southeast of Tunis, the country’s capital, Nabeul is one of the most important towns along the Gulf Coast.

President: Mrs. Basma Maatoug Meddeb

Contact: Ms. Hajer Bejaoui—Architect: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.nabeul.gov.tn

Main features:

The tourist area Nabeul-Hammamet features some 125 hotels including 33 luxury hotels (4- and 5-star) with an offering of 43,255 beds and two golf courses. This makes it the largest touristic hub on a national scale, with a strong accent on seaside tourism with its attractive beaches and sunny climate.

The presence of touristic monuments such as the Neapolis archaeological site adds even more value to the tourism industry of the municipality.

Main economic activities:

The agricultural sector is composed of an area of 28,820 ha of arable land. Agricultural production is dominated by arboriculture and cereals.

The industrial sector of Nabeul is dominated by the textile and clothing industries, which account for 27% of production units and 39% of industrial jobs. Nabeul has 671 industrial companies (more than 12% of the national industrial fabric) which employ 71,000 people.

As for the commercial activity in Nabeul, it is mainly based on the sale of handicrafts such as pottery, wrought iron, mats, spices, orange blossoms, etc.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city of Nabeul is quite vulnerable to the effects of climate change, particularly extreme rainfall and water flows resulting in increasingly frequent flooding.

Protecting the city requires building a canal belt upstream of the city, redeveloping the existing wadis to improve the flow, reforesting the area to protect the banks of the wadis, as well as fixing and treating the soil in horizontal plateaus to make it more stable. The goals here are to reduce vulnerability and adapt the city to floods, reduce the risk of flooding during rainy events, protect the population and property, improve the stormwater drainage system and preserve tourist areas and handicraft activities.


Bizerte

Population:167,759 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 3,685 km²

Capital of the eponymous governorate, the city of Bizerte is located about sixty kilometers northwest of Tunis, the capital, and 5 km from Cap Blanc, the northern tip of Africa. The city is located at the southeastern tip of an isthmus on the northern shore of the Bizerte Canal connecting the sea to Lake Bizerte.

President: Mr. Kamel Ben Amara

Contact: Mrs. Sonia Dhaouadi: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.commune-bizerte.gov.tn/index.php?lang=fr

Main features:

Bizerte is a Phoenician foundation dating back to the 11th century BC, before Carthage and after Utica. Before the great works at the end of the 19th century, the city was composed of 4 distinct districts within the walls of the city: The central Medina, the Kasbah, the Ksiba, and the Rbaa (island) and an outside district: Houmet Al Andalous.

Bizerte is known for its ancient port but also its Medina rich in monuments, including a fortress and ramparts.

Main economic activities:

Bizerte is a major economic hub based essentially on industry, services, trade and agriculture.

Alongside the two flagship sectors of the region: industry and agriculture, whose contribution to the national productive effort is major, the regional economy is supported by the dynamism of a tertiary sector driven by the tourism activity.

Besides a heavy industry based on oil refining, iron and steel industry and cement production, the city of Bizerte is home to a well-developed and diversified fabric of manufacturing industries, a significant part of which is destined for export. The main manufacturing industries located in Bizerte are the following: textile and leather manufacturing, footwear and accessories, mechanical, electrical and electronic industries, yachting and accessories.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city of Bizerte is very vulnerable to the effects of climate change, particularly extreme rainfall and water flows resulting in increasingly frequent flooding.

In this context, the municipality is preparing rainwater recovery projects to increase water availability and preserve available water resources, as well as other flood protection projects.

Bizerte is in line with national objectives in the field of the environment, and plans to create, with the regional municipalities along its borders, an inter-municipal agency for waste management (study underway); it aims to digitize the cleanliness sector and quality of life and is carrying out projects to recycle green waste.


El-Guettar

Population:20,137 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 907 km²

El Guettar is a commune located in the southwest of Tunisia. It is a town 20 km southeast of Gafsa towards Gabes, 20 km from the Gafsa-El Ksar airport and 130 km from the port of Gabes.

President: Mr. Mabrouk Ammar

Contact: Mr. El Hadj Riadh—Member of the City Council: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

BThe city grew near a 450-hectare oasis located at the foot of the Jebel Orbata mountain range (1,165 meters) and close to a sabkha (a coastal mudflat in which evaporite-saline minerals accumulate). The oasis is renowned for its pistachio trees.

Main economic activities:

The Southwest Region is characterized by an important agricultural activity, alongside tourist and industrial activities, namely in specialized hubs. Throughout the region, agriculture remains a dominant industry both as an economic sector because of its contribution to employment, to national agricultural production, especially for certain products such as dates or red meats, but also as a form of development of natural resources and spatial planning.

There is only one 20 ha industrial zone on the territory of El Guettar.

The municipality of El-Guettar was declared a tourist zone in 2012 (decree 283 of May 29, 2012). However, tourism has not been developed so far, despite the richness of the region in major historical and environmental sites and despite the efforts of the municipality and associations for the improvement of alternative tourism and the development of citizen and solidarity-based initiatives.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The climatic characteristics of the southwest region are influenced by local conditions such as terrain and vegetation (oasis). The influence of topography is reflected in wind speed, air temperature and rainfall. The effect of the vegetation is very localized and favors microclimatic conditions that make life in the oases less austere.

The El-Guettar municipality has adopted a few basic principles aimed at integrating a sustainable development component in all decisions relating to local development. The municipality is always considering the principles for taking energy aspects into consideration in future action programs so that these fit in with the new vision of local development and job creation and the revitalization of the territory.


Hammam Sousse

Population:42,691 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 20 km²

The municipality of Hammam Sousse is located in the central eastern part of Tunisia (Sahel region). It is a coastal city that belongs to the Governorate of Sousse and the Hammam Sousse delegation.

President: Mrs. Leila Golli

Contact: Mr. Mani Abderrazak: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.commune-hammamsousse.gov.tn/

Main features:

The city is located on a plateau made up of small, low hills (less than 150 meters) and vast plains. These hills are traversed by the Oued El Hammam River. It enjoys a warm Mediterranean climate with a dry summer.

Main economic activities:

Despite the climatic conditions not very favorable to agriculture, Hammam Sousse has long been known as an agricultural center. However, olive tree plantations have been losing ground in recent decades due to the galloping urbanization of the Sousse agglomeration.

Industrial activity holds second place after tourism and is gaining ground at the expense of agricultural activity, which is gradually losing its land.

The considerable development of tourism in Hammam Sousse, took place in the late 1970s with the creation in 1979 of the first seaside resort in Tunisia around the El Kantaoui Marina. The success of this resort since its opening has led to the creation of a linear tourist concept, turning its back on the hinterland.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Historically, the city of Hammam Sousse has experienced several floods following heavy rains. Recently, as of September 14, 2020, significant amounts of rain have been recorded in various regions of the Governorate of Sousse and particularly in Hammam Sousse, causing traffic disruptions and the flooding of several houses, thereby requiring an intervention to fight against floods.

In addition, the decrease in freshwater resources due to its scarcity and the consequences of this scarcity make it an absolute necessity to avoid spillage. This is why the recovery and reuse of rainwater is of double interest for Hammam Sousse.

The municipality has adopted a few basic principles aimed at integrating a sustainable development component in all decisions relating to local development. The municipality is always considering the principles for taking energy aspects into consideration in future action programs so that these fit in with the new vision of local development and job creation and the revitalization of the territory.


Monastir

Population:94,000 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 4,632 hectares

Monastir is a coastal city of the Tunisian Sahel in central-eastern Tunisia, located on a peninsula in the southeast of the Gulf of Hammamet, about twenty kilometers east of Sousse and 162 kilometers south of Tunis. The city has been the capital of the eponymous governorate since 1974.

President: Mr. Mondher Marzouk

Contact: Mrs. Wafa Guandouz: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.commune-monastir.gov.tn/web/fr/

Main features:

Monastir is a peninsula surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea on three sides and forming, towards the south, the eponymous Gulf, which extends to the Cape of Ras Dimass. It features diverse landscapes, including sandy and rocky beaches as well as a cliff that stretches nearly six kilometers.

The city of Monastir, with its sedentary past, has always been characterized by a fairly high level of collective facilities and by a diversity of installations that are increasingly multiplying.

However, it has regained its vocation as a city of knowledge as a university center with the creation of the Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmacy Faculties and a Graduate School for Health Sciences and Techniques. By also evolving as a scientific and technological hub, Monastir has become a city where students strive.

Monastir is part, with Kairouan and Sousse, of the first Arab cities founded in Ifriqiya. Around the year 665, it became an external fortress to guard the capital Kairouan. It was Herthouma Ibn El Aïoun, governor of the Caliph Haroun Errachid, who founded the Great Ribat of Monastir in 796. It is from this Ribat that the city of Monastir originated. The Muslim history of Monastir is closely linked to the building of ribats, mosques and mausoleums. This gives the region a spiritual and intellectual aspect whose fame goes beyond the borders of the Muslim West.

Main economic activities:

Monastir is a region showing strong potential for the development of agricultural activities. Agriculture is diversified and is essentially based on olive growing, market gardening, dairy production and fishing.

As far as tourism is concerned, all along the city’s coastline, a tourist and hotel industry has developed to make it the main feature of the city’s economic activity today. As a tourist city with 53 hotels, the city boasts on average and throughout the year a population of about 15,000 tourists.

Besides its tourist vocation, the city of Monastir also has an industrial activity. The latter is essentially based in three small industrial zones, covering an area of 52.5 hectares, where 71 industrial units have been established, 43 of which are specialized in the textile and clothing industries and whose production is intended exclusively for export.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The average annual rainfall at Monastir is 328 mm, an average considered low for a coastal zone.

In times of rain, as a result of heavy showers, the city of Monastir experiences issues with water runoff that cause flooding. The town’s rainwater drainage system sometimes cannot cope with the amount of rain, causing flooding of the town’s streets and alleys..

In addition, the municipality of Monastir has about 75.5 ha of landscaped green spaces and forest and recreational areas covering nearly 71 ha. The importance of these areas is mainly due to the presence of the olive forest of El Agba.

Consequently, the municipality is committed to creating and improving green spaces as part of its sustainable development outlook.


Radès

Population:60,000 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 1,500 hectares

Rades is a city in the southern suburbs of Tunis, located about ten kilometers from the Tunisian capital.

President: Mr. Jawher Sammari

Contact: Ben Youssef Mehdi: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.commune-rades.gov.tn/fr/

Main features:

The location of Rades is characterized by the richness of its climate and its diversity, the city includes a forest, a plateau, a plain, a valley and the sea, which have given it an attractive character and created an active urban mobility.

The city of Rades, famous for its jasmine production, is nicknamed “The City of Jasmine.” It is cultivated in allotment gardens, and is used for decoration and distillation for family use or for traditional markets. The original jasmine of Rades is sold in the capital and exported to several European capitals.

Main economic activities:

MRades is home to the first commercial port of the country whose development dates back to 1987 and has experienced a dazzling development, capturing even the activity of the port of Tunis and that of the port of La Goulette. It specializes in container traffic (700,000 TEUs per year) and roll-on/roll-off, while a major industrial port area is being developed in its immediate vicinity.

Close to the port of Rades is the combined-cycle power plant, built by Alstom for the Tunisian Electricity and Gas Company (STEG); it was commissioned in 2001. This plant, together with that of La Goulette, supplies the Greater Tunis and a large part of the north of the country.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city of Rades has systematically adhered to approaches to the development of renewable energies, particularly solar energy and the control of energy consumption through ambitious programs of energy efficiency and rational use of energy.

The municipality has a strategic vision for the protection of the environment, namely the coastline and the forest to fight against marine pollution and solid waste.


Sousse

Population:242,000 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 45 km²

President: Mohamed Ikbel Khaled

Contact: Mr. Daga Noureddine: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: http://www.commune-sousse.gov.tn/fr

Main features:

Sousse, a flagship and historical town, is the result of diverse and precious ruins known all over the world. The city has been able to harmoniously embrace modernity by becoming a major economic hub and a top Mediterranean tourism destination. Today, it is a dynamic regional metropolis in continuous expansion.

Capital of the Governorate bearing the same name, it is the third city of Tunisia by its demographic weight, its territorial extent and its multiple functions. The prodigious growth it has experienced since the 1960s, makes it the development hub of Central Tunisia and one of the pillars of the national economy.

But it is above all seaside tourism—through the all-important place it holds in the life of the entire region—that has shaped the urban landscape and contributed largely to the development of all the potentialities. Its superb coastline and the luminosity of its sky, which has always been praised by illustrious travelers such as Maupassant, Gide, Paul Klee and many others, attract nearly one and a half million foreign visitors every year. As a result, the city’s population almost doubles during the summer season. Sousse prides itself on its very distant origins, its rich heritage and an enviable geographical setting. It has been able to make the most of the beneficial presence of the rich Mediterranean Sea to become an authentic melting pot of outstanding cultures. This is where its vocation as a haven and land of interactions was born, a cosmopolitan city, the “Pearl of the Sahel,” which remains one of its most distinctive features.

Main economic activities:

The city of Sousse has been able to take advantage of its favorable geographical position and its proximity to the sea, a privileged place of transit, to develop many industrial, agricultural and tourist activities. Nevertheless, this economic boom has created significant environmental challenges.

The industrial activities of the city of Sousse are diverse, mainly composed of heavy industries (production of transport equipment), textile industries and food-processing infrastructures for export (60% of the industrial units having the status of companies are entirely exporters). The industrial processes used make up a large part of the emissions.

Agriculture occupies an important place in the economy of Sousse; with more than 150 hectares of arable land, Sousse cultivates mainly olive trees and has become the second production hub after Sfax. The city’s agricultural potential is essentially the product of large and increasingly modern farms, which demonstrate a genuine ambition to increase profitability and the production of large volumes.

Sousse also enjoys a rich historical heritage which attracts tourists from all over the world. Today there are about 130 hotel units entirely dedicated to tourism throughout the city. Three large tourist resorts have been built and the sector creates nearly 20,000 jobs each year during the high season.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The city of Sousse has systematically adhered to approaches to the development of renewable energies, particularly solar energy and the control of energy consumption through ambitious programs of energy efficiency and rational use of energy.

In the context of promoting renewable energies, and insofar as solar energy will provide additional capacity, the municipality has planned to implement a series of actions, with the invaluable assistance of the National Agency for Energy Management (ANME) for the use of solar energy for water heating in its sports facilities.

In designing projects, it has introduced the concept of “energy audit,” with the aim of creating buildings with a very low energy consumption footprint (including the case of the Olympic swimming pool in Sousse currently under study).

The city of Sousse is aware of the obligation of a rational use of energy in order to face the energy challenges. If it’s true that the techniques, means and human resources are still lacking in this strategic area, the will for an optimal realization of the choices is a reality shared by the administration, the private sector and the civil society.


Kairouan

Population:180,000 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 1600 km²

President: Mr. Radouane Bouden

Contact: M. Amara Sahbi: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://www.commune-kairouan.gov.tn/

Main features:

Kairouan is a Tunisian municipality separated by about sixty kilometers from the Mediterranean coast.

It is best known for its long and rich history. Founded in the year 671, it was the capital of the Aghlabids who ruled in the 9th century, and subsequently the hub of Islamic conquests throughout the Maghreb. Kairouan is considered the fourth most holy city in Islam after Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem. Today it is recognized and classified as a world heritage site by UNESCO, for its historical ruins: Great mosque, basin of Aghlabids, the ramparts, the medina, the mausoleum, the Mosque of the Barber, the Mosque of the Three Gates, etc.

Main economic activities:

The Kairouan territory holds several natural resources such as gypsum, silica sand, clay and marble. The region’s industry is essentially based on the exploitation of its quarries. The textile and automotive industries come to complement the industrial fabric.

With more than 340,000 hectares of arable land, the Kairouan region is one of Tunisia’s major agricultural areas. This sector employs 30% of the region’s working population and, thanks to its significant water resources, 13% of the country’s irrigated land.

Tourist infrastructure is still limited, there are only 11 hotels in the city and the number of tourists has tended to fall in recent years. With an ambitious and smart infrastructure policy in relation to the city’s tourist assets, the city will be able to prosper and regain the place it should always have had. Rightly, Kairouan, as a center of tourist attraction, could develop on the themes of ecotourism, terroir, handicrafts, history and more generally sustainable development.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

From an energy-climate point of view, the city has significant levels of air pollution due to its dense road network (more than 700 km of roads). On the other hand, the public energy bill is particularly high due to inefficient infrastructure (public lighting, energy-intensive municipal buildings, etc.).


El Maâmoura

Population:8,039 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 2.85 km²

El Maâmoura is a coastal city of Tunisia located in the region of Cap Bon, 5 kilometers north of Nabeul and contiguous with Beni Khiar. Administratively attached to the governorate of Nabeul, it has been a municipality since May 3, 1966.

President: Ms. Abir El Fen

Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

The city takes the name of a cape, the Ras Maâmoura, and is characterized by a long beach and a 450-hectare sabkha (a coastal, supratidal mudflat in which evaporite-saline minerals accumulate) that is subject to a special protection regime because of the richness of its ecosystem.

Every summer, the city organizes a multicultural festival called the Sidi Ben Daoud Festival.

Main economic activities:

TIn the past, agricultural activity was the mainstay of the local economy in Maâmoura and the only profession practiced by its inhabitants apart from handicrafts. Over the years, the local economy has metamorphosed like most of the coastal cities of Tunisia where industrial and tertiary activities (services, trade, tourism, etc.) have taken precedence over ancestral activities including agriculture.

Its commercial activity is mainly based on the sale of artisanal products, spices, etc.

Moreover, the tourist activity is one of the pillars of the regional economy, reflecting the seaside character of tourism, which remains in strong relation with its attractive beaches and sunny climate. The area features guest houses for camping and summer vacations.

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

Being a privileged destination, the municipality is currently engaged in partnership with associations and local civil society with the aim of becoming a leading municipality in supporting development. Within the framework of the Clima-Med project, the municipality of El Maâmoura is developing its Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan (SEACAP).


Sisseb Dhriâat

Population:32,000 inhabitants (2014)

Area: 312 km²

President: Mr. Radouane Bouden

Contact: : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Main features:

Sisseb Dhriâat is located at the northeastern end of the Governorate of Kairouan and is the neighbor of 4 municipalities: Sbikha’ from Kairouan, “Kondar” and ’Enfidh’a from Sousse and “Nadour” from Zaghouan. Located 35 km from the future Enfidha Deep Water Port and 25 km from Enfidha Hammamet International Airport, it is a 100% rural community.

Main economic activities:

Agricultural sector: 65%

Livestock sector: 10%

Tertiary sector: 15%

Industrial sector: 5%

Others: 5%

Conditions and Environmental Challenges:

The alleged role of the municipality is very important in the process of sustainable local development, but it lacks adequate means to meet the needs of citizens.

The city of Sisseb Dhriâat is aware of the importance of environmental protection, especially for waste and oil mills, which are the main environmental challenges facing the municipality.

In the absence of heavy road traffic, the commune does not present any air pollution. It is a purely agricultural area that has committed as part of the Covenant of Mayors for Mediterranean (CoM Med) to reduce its emissions and to prepare a Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan (SEACAP) to implement climate actions on the municipality’s territory.



The SEAPs/SECAPs were approved by the Joint Research Center (JRC).